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NIZHEGORODSKY the Kremlin

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1

To Towers nizhegorodskogo has tourists takes cable

the Kremlin heart of (Nizhny Novgorod.// cmno.ru

In lower Novgorod will emerge the cable car the road, which will link North and hour towers Nizhny Novgorod has. Project value of 150 million rubles already approved local authorities. The dimension cable car will total 150 meters, twenty-of which will undergo on underground while above. On cable car road is supposed to pitch two truck, too on eight-ten seats. Is expected, that project will become commercial, but wages for road tolls will small. Slightly more a hundred years ago on this place already was cable, who was m3 in the early 20th century. Specialists consider, that revival cable car - interesting outlet, which will foster attract in city tourists, reports last week.

the Kremlin nizhegorodskiy (the beginning of 16 digits)

Initially construction has began with the construction wood earthmoving Force facilities. In 1365 Propulsion Grand Prince Boris Konstantinovich began to building-based has, in 1372- generators 1375 devolving Work continued his brother Dmitri Konstantinovich. 1 September 1509 Propulsion, on decree great of the of the Moscow Vasily Ivanovich, was builds the existing and haunt her Stone Kremlin, turned important element of obscherusskoy Defense. In N. Novgorod were sent architect-@-@ time outlander Peter Fryazin and masters of from Pskov. Stone work began with the construction Dmitrievskoy towers with side a. Through few years (date the end of the works is unknown) Stone NIZHEGORODSKY poligonalnyy (mnogostennyy) Kremlin was built. He had 13 towers in a common lines walls and 14-defective 1490 pyatiugolnuyu by Pietro Antonio Solari on, combined with Dmitrievskimi gateway stony under bridge, 1366 through liberation of the moat led.

Rectangular towers (Ivanovo, Zachatevskaya, commission, Dmitrievskaya, she) were proezzhimi, had on 3 tiers battlefield. On fractures walls stood deaf persons 4-yarusnye towers, in including oveyannaya legends Koromyslova. The thickness of the walls accounted for 4-4.6 forge the Wall and towers mooted on powerful tapeworms the 1960 from if masonry, with external sides are faced with with a brick. Procast izvestkovym the solution the setting made by represents a monolith, Gvozdev on mobile with a span of in 4.6-5.7 forge the Fighting move.

Foreign line walls and towers until belokamennogo poluvala has sloping, that makes foundation their on 70-80 see Thicker, design - more reliable and including me. Fighting move is surrounded by fence from outside notches, every fifth has the murder hole. Move closed dvukhskatnoy roof, that retains stony brickwork from natural rainfall. Curly make ends tesnits are and constructive, and dekorativno- art elements.

Towers pokryvalis high tent-like church krovlyami with wrought praporami-windsock. Over Sentinel put 5-carbon split-rail le bois est une, in which but in urban clock with arc of. Passing through towers had lifting bridges, and within - gersy - okovannye behind the, opuskavshiesya on supply under enemy attacks. Over proezdami towers in special kiottsakh from outside but in posvyatitelnye as icons of.

Protection has a year of the on seniority application of Bahamian pischalno-Ah, weaponry. Construction towers allows to wage flankirovannyy (along walls) lumbago the entire okolokremlevskoy territory. Every centimeter the most dangerous under a fit of with hand Opillia Upland space prostrelivalsya simultaneously with 4 mnogoyarusnykh towers, in including with pantry and the Powder towers-kaponirov. Here but in and underground galleries for control for possible podkopami and as under Wall dispatched weapons now. Although about this there is mentioning in purely Russian documents, underground part of has remains not explored.

Basic ganglia Defense - Dmitrievskaya and Ivanovo towers - had additional chopped the obruby for location particularly large guns. This allowed attackers keep under control not only long drives the approach to the Kremlin, but and Nizheposadskiy engage, Bank and the river Volga.

On their-scale geo-fortifikatsionnym data NIZHEGORODSKY Kremlin was one of the most committed Russians medieval stone fortresses. Under numerous osadakh Stone Kremlin never was taken aback enemy.



Nizhegorodsky Kremlin one of the main attractions cities.

2

The story developments Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.

With time founding Bottom Novgorod tree-made of earth, boat in terms of Kremlin - Kremlin opoyasyval the top one of Dyatlovykh mountains. Fortress and shafts have served protection of population the entire constituencies. In case enemy invasions by here city was a people from all surrounding settlements architecture. For them on territory has were constructed by that are spacious barracks. Here same towering the main urban historical-Transfiguration and Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk Sobory, a series of the parochial officers churches, several monasteries, Grand Duchy of Muscovy (in 14 digits) and those cast palaces.
For-owning landlords walls but ins Backyard monasteries and affluent feudal lords, court yard governor, colonels and eventually dyakov, a small engage sestnymisupply train would and a bread granaries on case actual crop failure or other popular disasters (mass hunger, fires and enemy Great Sieges).

The Kremlin served administrative center vast constituencies. Here but in Tayny Prikaz Zakopane, province government and namestnicheskoe rule. Initially the Kremlin was rublennym. With 14 century been attempted repeated attempts rebuild his stony, but only in the early 16 century were erected now existing brick Wall and towers.

With for centuries changed soblyudenie and gradostroitelnaya the situation on of the Kremlin territory. On place old buildings were constructed by new - stone. Indeed of them - Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk Cathedral, discover Cumbre del Sol in the early 17 century. From subsequent since the also remained a series of valuable historical and-architectural monuments.

The Kremlin served administrative center vast constituencies. Here but in Tayny Prikaz Zakopane, province government and namestnicheskoe rule. With for centuries changed soblyudenie and gradostroitelnaya the situation on of the Kremlin territory. On place old buildings were constructed by new - stone. Indeed of them - Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk Cathedral.

In the early the seventeenth-digits In Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin were Spassky and Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk stone Sobory with shape and warm rublenymi temples, and also Dukhovskoy and Simeonovskiy monasteries, court yard ands Backyard, in including Pechersk and Dudina-Amvrosieva monasteries with temples. Near Spassky Cathedral was headquartered rockin 'Zakopane.

In Western part of has towering public granaries and occasionally walls "panskiy" yard. Have the Ivanovskaya towers was headquartered reboot a prison, have Dmitrievskikh at the Gate been conducted engage bread and sestnymisupply train would.

To mid-the seventeenth-digits Soblyudenie has undergone substantial changes. Near Nikolskikh at the Gate was based feminine Resurrection . With institution in 1672 Propulsion Nizhny Novgorod Metropolitan archdiocese the first lord has Filaret for Spassky, with Vatican II has unfolded construction-based of the ensemble his residence.

With institution Nizhny Novgorod Governorate (538-contained devolving) on place former of court along edge trimming Sentinel mountains was crafted wooden Palace governor. Medieval character developments has exalted until the second than half the eighteenth digits

In the second half of the eighteenth century in the center of the has, on timetable agreed in 1782 Propulsion Plan, with orientation on Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk Cathedral, crashed it Square torzhestvovaniy (energy-parade). On its long one sides there its long corps stone the daily seats and Sea arcade (Architecture) map for to serious maintenance of a historical Preobrazhenskomu to the Cathedral of 4 twin palace on for of higher local disengaged: Governor, the V.P. governor, nizhegorodskogo and military governors (erected only one).

Stone Sobory Simeonovskogo and Dukhovskogo monasteries agglomeration, but morph right in parish church. Former mitropolichiy Palace have historical-Preobrazhensk Cathedral was itself reorganized, and with 1786 Propulsion Transmitted under the deployment the Chief popular Performance. Near Sentinel towers in Kremlin remained public wine cellars, have Dmitrievskikh at the Gate - pond Sarka. In 1798 Propulsion On territory has remained 62 civilian homes. Moreover, there housed the stone government offices buildings the daily seats, Vice governor's palace on, banking offices, the former Episcopal residence, soldier's barracks, archive and homes general-governor.

The root realignment developments has on a regular basis of will just implemented only in times of the Directorial Viceroyalty (in late the eighteenth - the early nineteenth digits

3

NIZHEGORODSKY the Kremlin: Towers

NIZHEGORODSKY the Kremlin - historical center, place, where began history cities Nizhny Novgorod.
Ancient part of cities - Stone belt Nizhny Novgorod has, covering the top goristogo cape and projections pending Volga slopes of.

The first attempt to substitutes a wooden krepostitsy on Stone Kremlin applies to 1374 year, to era great principality Nizhny Novgorod - Suzdal (1341-1392 years).

Construction has in lower Novgorod, was launched roughly in 1,500 year and Radetzky not later 1515 year. Dvukhkilometrovaya the wall was underpinned by 13 towers (one of them - Zachatskaya - have Bank Volga, not survivor). "Stone city" had permanent garrison and stalled precious weaponry. A new volzhskaya fortress built undertaken by the Moscow state as the main pivot against Cathedral of city and for their ratnuyu service weathering repeated siege and bouts.

Recent pages combat credentials list of has belong by the early the seventeenth-century, by the time foreign intervention and great Mathew nizhegorodskogo militias under the leadership Kuzma Kozma Minin and Dmitri Pozharsky. Near walls has, on lower the pre, sentyabrskim day reported 1,611 year hit disturbing about, as for the resounding grandsire of, word Kuzma Kozma Minin. In honor popular militias 1612, year in lower Novgorod in 1631 year was been built Arkhangelsk Cathedral in Kremlin. He put on place his predecessor, shrine originally erected still in XIII century, "until Batyj." Under arches Cathedral, where housewife mobilize behind nizhegorodskikh opolcheniy 1612, and 1812 s, rests by great any Russia Kuzma Kozma Minin.

And the first the monument in city of became an obelisk in honor Kozma Minin and Pozharsky, constructed in 1828 year ons draft an architect A. I. Efficiency, of 327 met I. P. Martosom.

Here same, on Sentinel sorrow, in Kremlin, as proud the link centuries history people, in our resistance from walls an ancient Cathedral and alongside carry the Diviner - Minin and Pozharsky is ablaze eternal the fire in memory about inter Great Patriotic war 1941-1945 s. On growing names above three hundred gorkovchan - Heroes Soviet Union.


As evidenced by the Contemporary, in 1221 year great prince Vladimir Mayor Yuri III Vsevolodovich is based was the Lower Novgorod, protection of which have served to wooden-earthen strengthen - deep ditches and high shafts, have beset city and posada his.

The first attempt to substitutes a wooden krepostitsy on Stone Kremlin applies to 1374 year, to era Nizhny Novgorod Suzdal Grand Principality of (1341 1392). In this time Prince Dmitri Konstantinovich laid Kremlin, but his building limited herself to just one Tower, known as Dmitrovskaya to worsen, not passed until us (modern to worsen constructed later).


Under Ivana III Nizhny Novgorod plays role disadvantage cities, possessing a permanent cohorts and serving place military collection under actions Moscow against Kazan. In purposes strengthening Defense cities again begin work over-owning landlords walls.
Start construction-based Nizhny Novgorod has has become building in 1,500 year in coastal parts of cities the Ivanovskaya towers, but basic work turned around with 1527 year and in short timeline - to 1515 year - a whopping construction was complete.

Basic work on carried has have been conducted under leadership sent from Moscow an architect Pierre Francesco (Peter Fryazin).

In the composition of the the Directorial has thirteen towers the five square, gates, and eight round. Towers wear name: Dmitrovskaya (central), and from it, following in the Western direction, The back room, she, Koromyslova, Taynitskaya, North, the frescos, (means to worsen with hours), Ivanovo, White, masterpieces of, Zachatskaya, commission and St. Wenceslas. Towers building featuring from 18 until 30 meters are linked powerful (to five meters wide) walls with notches from 12 to 22 meters building featuring.

its city had permanent garrison and stalled precious weaponry. A new volzhskaya fortress built undertaken by the Moscow state as the main pivot against Cathedral of city and for their ratnuyu service weathering repeated siege and bouts. And nor never for all of this time enemy not was able mastering the Ideology.

With the fall Kazan NIZHEGORODSKY Kremlin has lost its military significance, and in further in offense housed the organs power cities, principality and county of.

4

Tower Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

To truly time persisted 12 of 13 towers has:

1. commission to worsen labeled next door with Posad Ribbon of St. George Church. In 1624 year in document content list mentioned as Egorevskaya. Square 4-'s yarusnaya to worsen, until the seventeenth-century - with podyomnymi gateway.

2. masterpieces of to worsen

3. Zachatevskaya (Zachatskaya) to worsen(destroyed landslide) - labeled on raspolagavshemusya near Conception monastery. Sometimes mentioned as Zhivonosovskaya to worsen (on church) or White (on analogies with neighboring). Two to worsen with gateway.

4. White to worsen labeled on belokamennoi revetment the lower parts of from the facade. More early name the seventeenth- the eighteenth century - Simeonovskaya, on Simeonovskomu monastery nakhodivshemusya near with it within has. Round 4-'s yarusnaya to worsen.

5. Ivanovo to worsen Ivanovo next door with Posad Church John Baptist.

6. the frescos to worsen on fixed on it in XVI century hours.

7. North to worsen (10th) on their's northern position relatively other Kremlin towers and next door with Posad Church Ilia of the Prophet.

8. Taynitskaya to worsen on's underground tilt from it to small river Pochayne.

9. Koromyslova to worsen on ostensibly buried under its amelioration legendary young girl with Mamomtov`s striving.
10. she to worsen next door with 1918 Posad Church.

11. The back room to worsen operate as the Class A warehouse facility place.

12. Dmitrovskaya (Dmitrievskaya)to worsen labeled named great of the nizhegorodskogo Dmitri Konstantinovich Radin. First time mentioned in category: 1372-1374 s, regardless the most old Tower.

13. St. Wenceslas to worsen was used for storage gunpowder and other ammunition. Earlier name - Spasskaya (has been near with Spassky, with Vatican II) and Streletskaya (near with streletskoy Sloboda). Round 4-'s yarusnaya to worsen. Front territory in at yarusakh there is no, i.e. to worsen plays role kaponira for waging podoshvennogo ceasefire along adjacent fortress walls. In average parts of - 3 windows, in the upper - 3 end of my prong and 11 combat windows.


Dmitrievskaya

Name. Most Kremlin towers, and not only in lower Novgorod, are called either on names saints, either on enthusiast of Osmoloda, either ineffectively, sometimes - on legend. Dmitrievskaya to worsen the Directorial has, it seems, the only in their kind to worsen, which wears name of its founder - great of the Dmitri Konstantinovich Radin. In 1367 year Dmitri Donskoy began to building-based has in Moscow, and in category: 1372 year began canceled-based has and in the capital Nizhny Novgorod state.

Construction. First time states about tower in sources in 1372- 74 devolving, and so she is considered ancient from towers the Directorial has. To the net towers led a long, about 29 meters, wide 8 meters, bridge, which connected tower with predmostnym reinvigorating the. With a four to worsen was headquartered as would pa Neebish Island and was fully surrounded with moat - an branch the principal ditch.
Military service. Since build to worsen played role chief entry in NIZHEGORODSKY Kremlin and central knot Defense Nagorno-Alternatively. Shift to the and to the left from towers waged two exit, deployed thus, that opponent could not prostrelivat bridge. Outs of from towers were equipped with the podemnymi did. One of outs in the seventeenth-century was closed - about him troops obrub - something like bastion. On it were set in late century large tools.
History. In late the eighteenth century and the early nineteenth century in tower have based its team garrison school, with of 1857 on 1867 Propulsion - archive provincial rule, which visited, as consider historians, Alexander Sergeevich Pushkin, and with 1896 on 1919. - vytvarne-historical museum. In 1894-96 Dmitrievskaya to worsen bore a reconstruction in the course re-equipment its under a tortured-historical museum. In a result reconstruction to worsen sharply wholesale on magnificent villa created from rest towers has and received a series of elements, not forecasts Nizhegorodskomu the Kremlin (expanded upper part of, Slope towers top --s).


Powder

Name. Round St. Wenceslas to worsen received its name in pozdneyshee time on character use, as place storage ammunition. Documents the seventeenth-digits Call tower Saviour - on raspolagavshemusya nearby within has Vasilyevich Spassky to the Cathedral of. In the eighteenth digits To worsen was general also name Streletsky Prikaz - on was settled down about it on the Top the pre streletskoy't send .

Construction. Until 1952 Propulsion It was thought, that in tower only 3 tiers. But in the course research works was discovered the fourth - floor tier towers. In his central of it there is no combat cameras - they consigned on both sides in thicker adjacent walls and equipped with the Arrow slits, now hidden underground.
Military service. In the Powder and pantry towers there is no front territory in at yarusakh - these circles are true kaponirami, CSC exclusively for waging ceasefire on flanks. Pistsovaya book sometimes-22 devolving Reports about tower: In it in podoshevnom combat along on stepam for purification 'and to Tahrir 3 engraver combat, yes from serednevo combat 3 windows OK yes with verkhnevo combat 3 forossko- 11 provides combat .
History. Mending towers produced in 1786 Propulsion Chinilas the lower part of towers and in nineteenth digits - lining towers below belt-poluvala carried out from brick nineteenth digits, of random with its the main array is crutches. With 1786 Propulsion To worsen was used as storeroom ????. Modern St. Wenceslas to worsen again picked up roof and partly our in 1955



commission

Name. On document content list 1624 year to worsen labeled Egorevskoy. To worsen received its name either from ?? nearby church, either from lost or destroyed mentioned it is in documents Georgievsky forming -dvortsa founder cities Yuri (Georgy) Vsevolodovich.

Construction. Commission to worsen - square to worsen with gateway. Location its on the edge of outcropping led to order arising powerful kontrforsov, buoy Wall. Initially in it were rail passes gates, but already in the early the seventeenth-century they were closed.
Military service. Road tolls in tower is leading inward has, tied under angle, - these isklyuchalas opportunity his of through the shelling. Gates towers had personnel lifting device - the remnants of his in the form of lock, for fastening axles-blocs, with the help which have risen gates, persisted within exposure map for. In ties with those, that to worsen concerns lines Wall only a half domestic facade, in the third 1346m there is 4 battlegroups cameras, emerging markets force on all 4 hand. The fourth tier towers - battle ? forossko- .
History. Commission to worsen repeatedly chinilas in the eighteenth-nineteenth centuries And was refurbished, on orders the Directorial governor Rebindera under storeroom ???? in 1785-86 devolving, with bookmark crosshairs not only between notches. In the course restoration works in 1953 On tower thorough renovated roofing, sokhranivshaya ancient form of.



masterpieces of

Name. Masterpieces of to worsen (she same Dukhovskaya) received its name from ?? near church Boris and Gleb. Name Dukhovskoy she received later - on based near with it in "curves Propulsion Monastery.

Construction. Masterpieces of to worsen had the general device, close with White.
History. To worsen was reconstructed during a revamp has in 1616-18 devolving, when in lower Novgorod has been building tree-received at strengthening New it . Under reconstruction battlegroups cameras were equipped with the in startup encounter further price hikes - of retaining walls.

5

Zachatskaya

Name. Zachatskaya to worsen received its name from raspolagavshegosya nearby, outside Kremlin walls, Conception monastery, based in mid-XIV digits Documents the seventeenth-digits Call its also White - obviously for the same reason, on which this is name wears neighboring to worsen. Some documents the eighteenth digits Call tower Zhivonosovskoy - on was settled down near church.
Construction. From data Pistsovoy books for sometimes-22 devolving And other documents should, that Zachatevskaya to worsen had only two tiers and on its perform well not exceeding equilibrium Heights lines Wall. On conditions terrain, and also judging by of what America couldn on River Russians, the builders has not put so much emphasis on it meaning an important knot Defense and built tower with transiently only in as a exit from has, soedinyavshego his shortest by with River.
History. To worsen not survivor. We mainline project its reconstruction, executed NPCs Etnos. Respect the construction the authors suggest do-@-@ sack for genuine fragments that Zachatskoy towers XVI century, and hot-wire ring fortress walls.

White

Name. Its name she received in nineteenth digits From well- belokamennoi lining in the lower parts of. Documents the seventeenth-@-@ the eighteenth digits W. Call tower Simeonovskoy - on nakhodivshemusya near with it within has Simeonovskomu monastery.
Construction. In modern tower 4 tiers, not Church original joists. Compared to other conditional statements towers Wall in it thinner.
Military service. Pistsovaya book sometimes-22 devolving Reports: small coworking round, that against Simeonovskogo monastery, and in it 3-fighting: The upper, seredney, podoshevnoy. With upper combat, 3 forossko- 11 windows combat from serednevo combat 3 engraver combat, from, lower combat along on a for ochischenya 3 engraver OK combat.
History. After a revamp 1787-88 devolving And series of other, in XVIII- nineteenth centuries To worsen was used as storeroom place. Until fire 1924 Propulsion In it was archive.

Ivanovo

Name. Ivanovo to worsen labeled on ?? nearby church John Baptist. Outside towers, over transiently in gates fit that icon John Baptist.

Construction. Built in 1,500-what s. This massive chetyryokhyarusnoe the construction chetyryokhugolnoy forms with walls pyatimetrovoy thickness. Living in lower 1346m vorotnyy road tolls: Inward has he goes on level of land, but on-home side on 3 Dam higher modern span in. Zaglublennaya in brickwork space claimed map for - a physical reminder the bridge, which honor threw in peacetime and has been lifted about on supply under enemy cities a fit of. In special slits arch of at the Gate from above afterward gersy - forged behind the. Ivanovo to worsen was the main tenants in Kremlin and a defensive center Biosphere status however has parts of fortress. With domestic hand it had park with traffic cop there , on which defenders of has have risen on Wall.
Military service. Ivanovo to worsen has two at the Gate - the main and sidelines, which lead on former tree-made of earth obrub. On offense but in the most powerful gun. In 16 digits Here has been my musket A whistle with-trunk about 5 flushed and weight 4761 kg, (one kernels on 40 grivenok (more poods).
History. From ivanovskikh at the Gate to Volga-kept bilateral the, on which spring 1612, year the police militia, the an orderly system Posadsky District, Moscow Oblast secretary of his Kozmoy Mininym led by prince Dmitri Pozharsky District, is moved on liberation Moscow from Poles. To worsen was in witnessing it siege N. Novgorod kazantsami and nogayami in 24, 1545, 1546, 1547 devolving In 1548 and verification devolving Under Kazan hence set out to take being shelved Ivan IV (Grozny). In 1695 and 1722 devolving Tower viewed Peter I, in large country Propulsion With it salyutovali Ekaterina II. Ivanovo to worsen several times slightly not was destroyed: Bursting of the was stored in it gunpowder in 1529 year, worked 1715 (MDCCXV year, and in 1946 collapsed obvetshavshie vaults map for within towers. In late 18 century here have based its team Nizhny Novgorod gubernskaya police, and in late go down together military warehouse. In 1896 year in tower placed archive arkheograficheskoy Commission and a library P. I. Efficiency Pechersk. Many times there was renovating and perestroika, but initial kind of facilities was restored during restoration 1950 60 s.

the frescos

Name. Its name to worsen received from hours, raspolagavshikhsya on with the pinnacle of in a special little wooden of it - -hour a hut . Hence and mountain, on which is located to worsen, wears name Sentinel . -hour mechanism was established on tower, judging by Workers, already after her build, so as was placed in a wooden superstructure. Mechanism tower hours himself always kicks time still in the early the seventeenth-century. Own nizhegorodskogo Voivod, written in 1703 Propulsion, points: on traffic cop Sentinel tower clock battlegroups and in those hours two bells, perechaski, yes bell-hour lings . Hence should, that clock was fightin 'and share of hours.

Construction. Ticking - the only from towers the Directorial has, situated on street corner Wall with the inward. Primykayuschaya to tower the wall enormous projections descends with a steep mountains to the Ivanovskaya tower and overcoming elevated mountain Grabovets in 40 meters. This the assistant Wall causes admiration exceptional courage many decisions. The setting made by Wall interesting naklonnym position ranks brick. Such reception sometimes meets in , created Russians greatest architects, in particular in liberation of the wall Trinity-Sergievskoy laurels.
Military service. An important combat meaning the frescos to worsen not had. But Pistsovaya book sometimes-22 devolving Reports: small coworking the frescos round, picked up; and in it 3-fighting: The upper, seredney, ispodney. In yspodnem combat under bashneyu cellar: Place brew and feast prevents gorodovye the supplies.
History. Documents note, that in late the seventeenth-and the early the eighteenth centuries About Sentinel towers podmoiny vyrylo veshneyu water , and under vultsy bashneyu below of Boot vyrylo veshneyu water . In 1740-43 devolving Have towers was with faces and with ispoda kick . After a revamp in 1786-87 devolving To worsen was used as storeroom ???? and burned from strike electric storm in 1808 Propulsion Conflagration inflicted the tower significant destruction: She the entire crack , in it collapsed ceilings and camping on D. Subsequently fissures were some as seal shut in just under, and Corps was during the famous is bandazhami-the thorns.

North

Name. To worsen ranks northeastern Western a corner mounted to parts of has and received modern name quite late, on to the geographical position. All documents the seventeenth-digits Call tower either Ilinskoy, either naugolnoy , camping on E. Angular. Name 10th is happening from church Ilia-prophet, which was headquartered on opposite side Pochainskogo a ravine. On legend she called into nizhegorodtsami on place, where was assassinated chief Nogai (during siege Bottom Novgorod in 1505 Propulsion

Construction. Device towers such same, as have Koromyslovoy and Tainitskaya (Secret) towers, but there is and differences. To worsen also has 4 tiers and two entry, leading directly in its central exposure. Transition in floor tier is equipped with in thicker Wall from Left from towers. And here is living in lower 1346m does staircase - here, apparently, were mentioned Pistsovyy reading Are simple-hearted legion the doors .
Military service. Pistsovaya book sometimes-22 devolving Reports about tower: small coworking 10th ugolnaya, and in it three-fighting: The upper, seredney, the lower, yes from, lower combat the exit for city: Are simple-hearted legion the doors. From nizhnevo combat along on a for ochischenya 3 engraver bevykh, use the middle combat 4 engraver combat, powered verkhnevo combat ? forossko- 7 windows combat .
History. Documents the eighteenth century note significant destruction in tower. In including other North to worsen chinilas in 1787- 1788 devolving In the early nineteenth digits Was busy things police . In nineteenth and the early the 20th digits To worsen was used military Scotlands, razmeschavshimisya in Kremlin, and as storeroom ????.

6

Taynitskaya

Name. To worsen received its name on imevshemusya from it exits - the dead-letter drop, poluzasypannye the remnants of which were found and destroyed in 80s Before period century. In documents the seventeenth-she is called Mironositskaya streets and At Zelena. First name is happening from Mironositskaya streets church, ?? on the opposite slope a ravine, number two- from zeleynogo court - of powder a plant,, too, raspolagavshegosya on the opposite slope a ravine. From zeleynogo court received its name and the Zelensky .
Construction. Its Ermine description of it's rustic: Round to worsen small coworking Mironositskaya, round the upper hand tent, picked up liquidity-preference scheme devices its is similar to with arrangements Koromyslovoy towers, only maintaining rock-entry is leading directly in the second tier.
Military service. Taynitskaya to worsen, as and the rest around towers has, has 4 tiers, each of which has on three combat cameras with Arrow slits, and also two tiers combat cameras in adjacent box Wall. Feature of devices combat cameras - increased width their territory. This stems, apparently, with the need to wage the fire on far distance. And, means, to worsen was-armed more powerful, than krepostnoe ethos, means.
That happened. Documents the eighteenth century note significant destruction in tower: And have vultsy towers Vskhod and vaults was the . In including other Taynitskaya to worsen pereoborudovalas on orders Nizhny Novgorod governor Rebindera in 1787 - 88 devolving In nineteenth digits She analyzed tseykhgauzami (ammunition) a team and nizhegorodskogo battalion (1827-1887 devolving With 1893 on 1917 W. It was placed archive.


Koromyslova

Name. Origins name towers stems with two choices as popular the legend about young girl with Mamomtov`s striving.
Construction. As and the rest around towers has, Koromyslova has 4 tiers, vicious dog-fighting cameras with Arrow slits. Two tiers combat cameras there is and in attached to it walls - they connected grabs with central premises towers. In tower lead two entry - one with Fighting shovel, and the other from Fighting cameras from Left in the second 1346m. The first tier're covered in soil with domestic hand Wall. The difference in level undercoat about towers within and outside of the Kremlin Wall very great. ~ See 5-6 forge the
Military service. Koromyslova - the extreme in the chain towers Nagorno-Alternatively has, which go in side, not machines, from attacks enemies natural obstacles. Pistsovoy reading sometimes-22 devolving To worsen described so: small coworking naugolnaya Koromyslova the upper hand tent, and in it three-fighting: The upper, seredney, the lower. In podoshevnom combat along on a for purification '3 engraver combat; in average combat 3 engraver combat; with verkhnevo combat, ? forossko- 9 provides lateral. Within, and tower, polati; in the upper battle lestvitsa wooden.
History. Feature of towers - its solitary that compared to other. In 1706 Propulsion Tower threatened the danger breakdown from-for podmyva undercoat. The danger podmyva was regulated away in 30-'s. Nineteenth century, when was created cube Zelensky Congress and made podsypka undercoat on slope. In XVIII- nineteenth centuries In tower placed archive (until 1886 Propulsion

she

Name. Its name she received from church Nicholas-revered, raspologavsheysya on opposite side Zelensky Congress.
Construction. Pistsovaya book 162I- 22 devolving Gives the next description of towers: Vorota Nikolskie, that have dyachya court. To worsen chetverougolnaya, the upper hand covered with In podosheviom combat, under bashneyu, under gateway feast gorodovye prevents reserves, yes postoron at the Gate in traffic cop wall polatka stone for zeleynye rates .
Military service. Trailing on their combat relevance Dmitrievskoy tower, she to worsen all same played an important role in defense has. In absent to worsen had lifting device enabling bridge through moat led, rejection before it. Predmostnogo strengthen, such a predmostnomu strengthen before Dmitrievskoy Tower, she not had.
History. Archive documents note very a significant destruction and climate of shape 1918 towers still in really the early the eighteenth century. In 1706 Propulsion Passing through gates in tower were laid. Subsequently to worsen repeatedly chinilas and pereoborudovalas, and in domestic premises (except exposure map for) from initial of shape in it almost nothing not retained - are intact only part of obvalivshiesya sidelines battlegroups cameras in thicker Wall.


The back room

Name. Its name to worsen received from words baggage (was used as storeroom place) In the seventeenth-@-@ the eighteenth to worsen was general name Alexeyevskaya, Volgograd Oblast - on, trafficking nearby church, built in 1642 Propulsion Gorodovaya rospis1662 Propulsion Calls this tower Oleksiivska (Kharkiv Metro )-Tverskaya also we . The last name sets the link this towers with construction 1,500 Propulsion, about which in chronicle source of reports, that: 30th of 1,500, September 1 days laid the in Novegorode time take tower . Nor until, nor after this none of sources name Tverskaya not gives nor one of Kremlin towers.

Construction. Modern The back room to worsen has 4 tiers. In the course restoration works 1953 About towers restored a semicircular annexed - the construction nineteenth digits, built for ventilation, lower tiers towers. Here where was kept garnoe oil for lighting urban streets (until the emergence of slight electric lighting).
Military service. Pistsovaya book so characterizes firepower might towers: three-fighting; the upper, seredney, podoshevnoy; in podoshevnom combat along on'm busting my and on wall for ochischenya 3 engraver combat; in seredney battle entry from cities, in serednem combat polatka stone, feast prevents gorodovye reserves; from serednevo same combat three engraver combat bolshikh, yes on zubtsakh small engraver battlegroups.
History. In 1785-1786 devolving Pantry to worsen in including other five towers mounted to parts of has was refurbished,: On place some stepped embrasure in it were they punctured windows and laid openings between notches. During fire 4 September 1807 Propulsion She was severely destroyed fire, especially in the upper parts of, and after repairs high its was several ubavlena. Burned she and in 1923 Strongly shoddy part of Wall, adjoining to tower with domestic facade, our in 1954 Roofing on tower restored in 1956

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At a in the distant past initial appointment Kremlin as defensive facilities, but retained another - be decoration of of our cities on century.nizhegorodtsy like its Kremlin. His compare with stony the necklace, nabroshennym on picturesque coastal of the hills Dyatlovykh mountains. Hence are opening boundless zavolzhskie gave and river open spaces.

This the beauty and reinforced to a new life known in our city of and in country architect-assessment S. L. Agafonov.

Agafonov developed a clear strategic plan. The entire vybudovani was aligned to him. All care about builders and about restoration he carry on their shoulders. Him accounted for organize work, extract construction materials, measured, very with a shovel in the hands of to wage excavation. Shots sleeves, he together with workers wore assemble the bricks, land. Svyatoslav Russian could answer any question, could explain, to tell, show. He was soul of and brain developments. He, can be said, lived in Kremlin, and Kremlin already lived in it really.

Restoration has was smashed on three waiting lists. The first has been until 1956. Then were met significant work on a from White towers until Sentinel, repaired upper circles White, Sentinel, North, Tainitskaya (Secret) towers, camped without roofing. In December 1958 year ordered Council of Ministers RSFSR about organizations ideal gas historical and-architectural Museum-preserve, the main nucleus which became Nizhegorodsky Kremlin. This contributed to revitalize works and continuation second phase, ending to 1961, when S. L. Agafonovym was in a whole completed draft project restoration has. The third phase covers period with starters 1960until the early 1970s.

To 1966 finished restoration work on pryaslakh from North until Koromysslovoy and 1918 towers. In original the form of were restored all surviving on this towers and pryasla walls. Under their restoring practice initial pulse data, gathered in the process research.

Destruction Wall between Ribbon of St. George and White towers began since its facilities. Landslides and wastes superficial and ground water destroyed 250 flushed Kremlin walls and two towers - Borisoglebskuyu and Zachatskuyu. The absence of on Bank Volga significant Alternatively fortress with two towers negatively effect on the wholeness architectural of the ensemble. Was upset a vicious contour Kremlin walls. Svyatoslav Russian performed project restoration this Alternatively has, predusmatrivavshiy reinvent the country's both towers. Then in 1969 was designed worker project Borisoglebskoy towers (jointly with engineer-constructor N. P. Kolpashnikovym), and already in 1974 she was fully restored on retailing place. Under this genuine its the remnants of, several flattened out his landslide, were mothballed.
History travel Zachatskoy towers proved significantly harder. About bad able Wall about it mentioned already in Pistsovoy book sometimes-1624 s. Inventory 1765 year, after the on the disastrous state of towers: In late the seventeenth-- the first half of the eighteenth centuries Its slew was removed landslide on 4.5 m side rivers. The assistant this repeatedly've redecorated. In the first half of nineteenth century was undertaken attempt to recovery Wall. The remnants of ancient towers fact have closed a new masonwork, making here "social to Zhivonosnomu source of."
By happiness the remnants of this towers were photographed.

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Only in 1961, when crashed part of later stratifications, it became clear, that under them indeed persisted fragments old masonry. To 1980 year they were are cleared fully and then detail obmereny. In 1985 was carried out graphic reconstruction of shape Zachatskoy towers (architect I. S. Agafonova, scientific chief S. L. Agafonov). Under this in the course detailed studying all data S. L. Agafonov voiced assumption, that initially gates, urafa inward has, and external were creates in mutually perpendikulyarnykh walls, the exit resurfaced was converted in side the Ivanovskaya towers. But already in the seventeenth-digits Zachatskaya to worsen passed kind of, such a the rest of the square Towers. Now external gates were are located on one axis with internal. This could happen roughly in 1620s years, when been conducted large renovating under the leadership as a B. Lykova. Then anew has been shifted masterpieces of to worsen, strengthened upper circles White towers. In the process research S. L. Agafonov voiced another new assumption relatively role in construction Nizhny Novgorod has known in Russia town builder Italian origin Peter Fryazina. Svyatoslav Russian convincingly proves, that Peter Fryazin (Pietro Francesco), who here in 1527-1509 s, hosted participation in leadership building limits the lower parts of has, i.e. in sgradi.Tova Borisoglebskoy, Zachatskoy and White towers, while Nagornaya (Moscow Metro) part of fortress already was built. A new master well could contribute elements western architecture. And perhaps, not accidentally on etching A. Adam Olearius,, fulfilled on drawing with nature during golshtinskoy expeditions 1636 year, on these walls are visible-s, typical for Italian medieval of architecture of. This historic fact found reflection in one of drawings S. L. Agafonova. On it are portrayed stone affairs masters of, the builders Nizhny Novgorod has, which surrounded Peter Fryazina and closely listening hard to his advice.
The main in defense on Nagorno has was Dmitrovskaya to worsen. This square in terms of, printed portal to worsen, which, as follows from letopisi, had yarusnoe building and-up was completed such same superstructure, that and Ivanovo. Upper superstructure and vskhodnaya staircase on wall were cannibalized still under great need of repair 1785 year. In 1956 in the course restoration were discovered the remnants of ancient belokamennykh Steps and fragments kirpichnogo arch of over them. Under zasypke very useful before Dmitrovskaya Line route diagram Tower high its wallss share dropped almost on six meters.
Svyatoslav Russian performed graphical reconstruction initial species Dmitrovskaya Line route diagram towers until destruction in the eighteenth century-based bridge and side towers before him, usilivavshikh protection Dmitrovskikh at the Gate.

Svyatoslav Russian established, that device podemnogo bridge retained almost without changes in Ribbon of St. George tower. He performed graphical reconstruction system protection outdoor at the Gate Ribbon of St. George towers.

On archival the photo we see, that represented a N.Novgorod fortress until restoration. Especially afflict the fotoizobrazheniya the ruins Sentinel towers, its state of until restoration. Project restoration Sentinel, the main Europetowers, was designed in 1954 and implemented in 1955-1958 s.

Recovery this towers in ties with large its the destruction portrayed greater the complexity of the. Feature of this towers, imports its from rest, is the availability of superstructure in the form of-hour cottages, representing a pyatigrannyy le bois est une. His high defined by dimensions an ancient hour mechanism. Mentioning about hours on Sentinel tower there is in document content list 1624 year. Hours mechanisms in those times were big rare. Bashtov clock post-mortems special "chasovnikom", Zakopane which teetered the people towers. Indicator these hours was, as and on bell tower the Christmas (Stroganovskoy) church, divided into 17 parts of on number of hours the most prolonged year-old days. Derrick at the top towers not only guarantees the surveillance of River and everywhere has, but and was meant for location bells, about than know from document content list 1703 year (TsGADA, f.141,. 80, l.10). Restoration Koromyslovoy towers was carried out in for 1962. In this tower well persisted the remnants of ancient belokamennoi masonry. For Nizhny Novgorod has characteristically simultaneous the use of stone and brick. Ranging from Koromyslovoy towers, worthwhile on the slope a ravine, on which mostly of valleys the Pochajna, violated alternation square and round towers. Here, because meaning natural obstacle, not was need to do square gates towers. So and Koromyslova, and Taynitskaya, and North towers around. They less in terms and thickness walls, than around towers The back room and St. Wenceslas, located on direct pryaslakh walls between large square towers. This even characteristics defense system has, which match its pioneer principles fortifications XVI century.

Cannot be not be noted still one important moment, concerning scientifically-historical hand restoration has. Throughout the period 1949-1969 s, when S. L. Agafonov take a careful handled this work, he led a detailed the Contemporary restoration. In it found reflex all changes, past cut in the course production works with each of towers, with every pryaslom, marked by species and results research. The Contemporary this long in book in ofChina [2].

Under immediate leadership S. L. Agafonova from emergency fortune were transferred 12 fortress towers and about 2000 linear meters Kremlin walls. Scientific and practical results restoration has were generalized them in dissertations on subject: "Study and restoration the Directorial has", brilliantly protected in 1971.

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developing territory

On territory Kremlin was perched many churches, however on real moment exalted only Mykhailo-Arkhangelsky Church could, built not later the mid-XVI century and converted in 1628 1631 devolving indeed from retire decades in the Kremlin buildings. In cathedrals tomb Cosmas of Kozma Minin.

In late 18 century in the center of the Kremlin was smashed Square torzhestvovaniy (energy-parade). To Tahrir were erected corps the daily seats (1782 1785), Palace Vice governor (1786 1788) and participant homes (Transnistrien 1801).

In 1828 year contrary Arkhangelsk of the cathedral was established an obelisk Minin and Pozharsky (architectors were Ch. A. I. Melnikov and I. P. Martos).

In 1837 1841 devolving Was built House military governor, now in building is Art museum; in 1840 1843 devolving On instruction Nicholas I was built the building Arsenal.

In late 19 digits To Vserossiyskoy industrial and the artistic the exhibition 1896 Propulsion Were built 2 Funicular, accomplished name Kremlin and Pokhvalinskiy, in city of their a elevatorami.

In 1931 on place serious maintenance of a historical Preobrazhensk Cathedral was built House the Soviets. The building met in-style constructivism and from above reminds plane. Now in building contains the Yushukan called Duma.

In 1965 alongside carry the Diviner - K. Minin and D. Pozharsky was lit eternal the fire and open memorial complex in honor gorkovchan, that fell in Great victorious war.

With 1928 on 1968 on territory Kremlin in building former Manege was perched tramway depot.

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Another scheme Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.

NIZHEGORODSKY the Kremlin
Towers has:

1. Commission to worsen
2. Masterpieces of to worsen
3. Zachatevskaya to worsen
4. White to worsen
5. Ivanovo to worsen
6. Ticking to worsen
7. North to worsen
8. Taynitskaya to worsen
9. Koromyslova to worsen
10. She to worsen
11. Pantry to worsen
12. Dmitrovskaya to worsen
13. Powder to worsen
14. Arkhangelsky Cathedral