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History the Directorial, sort of looks like

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1

HISTORY the Directorial, sort of looks like

With the outset its centuries of history N.Novgorod land played prominent role in life Russian state, being surprisingly a colourful and important Halytsh Volga region. Nor one thing important historic event Kievan Rus, of the Moscow state, the Russian empire, Soviet Union not passed without participation nizhegorodtsev (gorkovchan). NIZHEGORODSKY the brink was the bastion of patriotism, large center entrepreneurship and trade, place birth and development 3dnews.ru popular crafts, cradle of domestic science and culture.

The entire country on justly proud of Ivan Petrovich Kulibin, Kuzmoy Mininym, Valery Chkalovym, Children Gorky. Glorious their historical past and vozrozhdaemaya today N.Novgorod Fair accepts guests from around the world. The global prominence and recognition has won golden khokhloma. Before numerous teeming reveal their beauty legendary Lake Svetloyar, the holy Diveevskaya land, mysterious seats Russian Orthodox Old Believers kerzhenets River.

Many scientific achievements are linked with nizhegorodskimi scientists. Ranging with ancient since the and on todays day N.Novgorod land remained and will remain continued part of history and culture the Russian state, source of his further development.

2

HISTORY apartment

History Nizhny Novgorod land moves away in, St. antiquity. Archaeological excavation have shown, that on territory of our the brink in III II millennium until our era lived tribes balakhninskoy Neolithic agricultural culture. Its name she received on the most typical parking lot, investigated near modern cities Balakhna Urban Settlement. , circus and balakhnintsy small villages on 25-30 adults people. Seleniya but in compact groups. Except vicinity Balakhna Urban Settlement (the Big casino, small casino), archaeologists opened such groups in district cities Pavlovo, all political (Gavrilovka, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Zhyolnino, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Volodarsk, Russia), Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Serkovskaya, Sokolskaya), N. Novgorod (in Sormovsky City District, Molitovke, on Mokhovykh the mountains). Parking balakhnintsev were found on River Linda (Lindovskaya, Ostreevskaya), in Povetluzhe, in Valley rivers Tyosha and in other places.

Balakhnintsy were people and sketches. Judging by found V, they were reason smoothing, cause very, toting his and to saw stumbling, titanium a clay tableware. Them was known residence.The from plant-fiber supplemented. In the second half of II Goals until our era they have learned vyplavlyat metals, knew hoe (tool) land-cultivation rights, engaged in from.

In several kilometers on southeast east from station of the Saeima by archeologists was discovered Seyminskiy burials were explored, which applies to XV - XII centuries of until our era. Here were found over the wreckage are, bronze castings dolotoobraznye vtulchatye axes, big be made into arrowheads copies of, knives, suzani. Together with by bronze instruments of were discovered and silicone: Be made into arrowheads arrowheads, pilki and over the wreckage sverlenykh tubes. Moreover, were and unexpected specimens objects from Jade, arsenal of bead, although fields Jade and amber on territory area there is no. Specimens this parking reveal about vast links ancient people from northern seas until Central Asia and Baikal. The most valuable materials entered the exposition State historic Museum in Moscow.
About immigration issues and classes people bronze and Iron centuries tell excavation and other parking and the burial ground: Churkinskiy burials were explored (district Propulsion Balakhna Urban Settlement), Sergachsky burials were explored, open in Kozhinoy't send (I - III century BC E, Gaginsky and Khirinskiy near cities Arzamas (middle of the I Goals our era), will be, Rusinikhinskoe, Odoevskoe, Ferris of the hillfort on Vetluga (town).

In I millennium our era along rivers Tyosha, PK, Alatyr to life, Kudma River, Oka lived mordovskie tribes. In Povetluzhe mariyskie. A small territory on Oka until also a its in Volga borrowed muroma.

In XII century in a mouth of of Oka emerge the first Slavic settlements. Farmers with southeast west, from princedoms Kievan Rus in the Nighttime its of disintegration, and with north-west, with Vladimiro-Suzdal land, of a crazy on preferred far west land and there families and groups bordering of Oka and Volga. Slavs, circus and among natives, gamble, in primarily, land todays Gorodetsky, Balakhninskiy, and Borsky District, Samara Oblast neighborhoods.

3

to distort statehood

Vladimiro-suzdalskie Princes interested watched on ?? for of Oka and Volga. For them foothold on a mouth of of Oka meant solve strategic tasks - firmly get on trade path, lasting since the earliest times were Oka and Volga for different peoples, and secure their southern and eastern borders, in particular, from Volga Bulgarian, on river the banks of their strengthen and often sovershavshikh [going on northeastern eastern Russ.

This district was very important in the trade and militarily. So the struggle for these land acquired particularly acute character. Prince Yuri Dolgoruky through 5 years after the founding Moscow, in 1152 year built on the left Bank Volga, in 60 kilometers higher Oka River (the mouth of a fortified city Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast-Radilov (now Propulsion Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast). In 1165 year Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky successfully gave against Bulgarian, and a mouth of of Oka became place, where subsequently intended Russians troops before military campaigns.

Especially significant were [going 1219-1220 devolving Volgaic Bulgarian pegs defeat and forced to were beg world, who was dishonest in Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast on dire for them conditions. In a badge of entrench success the great Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich in 1221 on place mergers of Oka and Volga laid city, which has named Novgorod the Bottom. The Bottom Novgorod became important military, economic and political point Vladimiro-Suzdal Russias - center, wield which allowed to control basic ties Russias with the Volga region and countries East.
When on Russ struck Mongol-the Tatar invasion of, Vladimirskii Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich not answered it on request Ryazan, Russia of princes about aid. He wanted to himself battle with enemy. But using numerical superiority, Mongol-the Tartars surrounded Europenizhegorodskiy supposedly overpowered under Kolomna (city) and battered his in odds combat. BC Novgorod, devoid of defenders of, been filed without battlefield. In February 1238 after stubborn refusal resistance been filed and burnt Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

During Mongolic-Tatar communism, despite severe oppression Tatar Khans and piggish tributes, N. Novgorod gradually recovering and is gaining ground. By the end of XIII century he mentioned in annals as the third city in St Vladimir's princedom following Vladimir and Suzdalyu, and in 1341 year becomes its capital self-sustaining the Directorial principality, which took an extensive territory. On the east his the border proceeded on River Sur, on the southeast and south on rivers PK and Serozha. In the west the border commanded on pravoberezhyu of Oka until Muromians, forth through a lower reaches of Klyazma's tributary, including in themselves Suzdal and Shua. On the north borders principality crossed a downside tide rivers Unzha River, Vetluga (river) and kerzhenets River. The main reference point on the east was fortress Kurmysh, based in category: 1372 year. Along the border stood small of fortress ostrozhki, in which lived border guards. The remnants of such fortresses discovered on River PK in Buturlinsky and Sergachsky areas.

Russ not times rebelled against communism Mongolic-Tatars. Not remained in side and nizhegorodtsy. In 1374 year on away to Lower Novgorod they battered large tartar the team, and Tatar-Mongolian yoke ambassador Sarayku and his cronies have been jailed. Then, under an attempt to flight, those were killed. The Tartars retaliated for this with a taint of large party on Zapyanyu. In 1377 year about N. Novgorod emerged young tsar Arapsha with army. Power--a period ruled combined nizhegorodsko-start cohorts. The Russian lect just beneath until rivers PK, but enemy not fierce. Day behaved for day, and Mongol-Tatars all not emerged. Warriors have calmed down, cut down weapons. Poorly has borne its service NIE. For such a loss of vigilance Russian military cohorts brutally poplatilos. Secretly podkravshiesya teams Arapshi battered Russians. That battle received name Pyanskoe carnage. Victory on Pyana River gave opportunity Arapshe to seize and pillage N. Novgorod.
Constant the threat enemy hail storms, close economic ties have accelerated adherence Bottom Novgorod to Moscow. In 1392 year he penetrated in composition of the Moscow principality, became reference point Moscow on Volga-.

4

the ascents largest EKONOMIChESKOGO TsENTRA

With XIV century in Volga region is happening intensified resettlement of Russians. They terminally master coastal territory of Oka and Volga, it comes in depth mordovskikh dispossession.

Nizhny Novgorod gradually turns into large economic center state. Here fed craft, chekanilas own coin. Important place in life cities borrowed trade. A strong development gained metallurgical and handmade art smithery deal. 3 masters of knew various ways processing copper, bronze, silver content and gold: Casting.

With first years founding cities here was conducted oldest stone construction, that was rare for central swathe of. In Zavolzhye (disambiguation) were developed pottery, zolotoshveynyy best, weaving, kruzhevopletenie, embroidery, the fabrication painted wooden and clay toys. And to this day around the world popular bright, with unexpected a combination of flowers its kartina in Russians sarafanakh and headscarves, which manufactured now in Semenivskyi district Nizhny Novgorod area. With large art cut out in Zavolzhye (disambiguation) are made of gingerbread chessboard, under aid which printed famous gorodetskie sticks.

Special place borrowed (and occupy haunt her) section there on tree - "deaf there", - and an art painting of. Over the artistic carving worked entire generation foreman handicraftmen -. In it Goddes the richest fantasy craftsmen. Thinly made drawings portray leaves increasing of chicory and dandelion, grape vines with the subtle the mustache shoots and heavy do just throw berries, fantastic flowers, which there is no in nature. Often you cutters was portrayed mythological beings - women with into fish tails (siren song) and men, so-called "Egypt,." Patterns DEAF a groove decorated svetelchatye ("Italian") windows under the roofs of homes, nalichniki, gates, and also rasshivy, barges, belyany.

History retained names great people, lived in the time. The building Spassky Sabor (Edda Propulsion) pitch telling ideals of perfection, in Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast lived an artist Prokhor, fellow Rublev). Creation Prohor until now retained in Moscow, in Arkhangelsk Cathedral. Vysokoobrazovannym man of the time was nizhegorodskiy Bishop Dionisy. Precisely he patronize the the monk the Lavrentii, which in 1377 Propulsion Averaged the Contemporary, called a then in his honor Laurentian codex. She is the oldest pisanym document about history Rus.

During a hike Ivan Grozny on Kazan basic forces troops led by themselves tsar has been going through southern areas the Directorial the brink along rivers Tyosha and Alatyr to life. On the way haul his troops was based a long new settlements architecture. On to the legend, among them were Ardatov, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and Arzamas. After convention of Kazan the Bottom Novgorod lost significance border fortress, but has risen his role as one of largest economic centers Russian state. She defined by rapid development trade, Volga navigation, development crafts. Significant city becomes Balakhna Urban Settlement (1474). Their growth she owes it ghazal promyslam. To number of large settlements the brink belong also Pavlovo and Vorsma Urban Settlement. In XIV century this district was sometimes called "Pavlovskie sela."

5

the police militia

In 1607 year during invasion in Russia Polish Szlachta led by False Dmitriy to their side have gone many cities Russia, in including Arzamas and Balakhna Urban Settlement. Poles been attempted attempts tilt the on its side and nizhegorodtsev, but inconclusively. Supporters False Dmitriy (disambiguation) were dashed on away to city about settlements architecture Koposovo and the Big casino, in district Kadnits, under Vorsmoy and Pavlov.

In built on 1610 year Poles entered the Moscow. Ryazan organizes popular militia, the and nizhegorodtsy have active aid. But militia, the not surviving a challenge domestic contention, was dissolved.

With this time Nizhny Novgorod becoming the main center struggle with Allied intervention in Russia. Breed a trader flesh from N. Novgorod, elected in reported 1,611 Propulsion Zemskim secretary of his, Kuzma Minin turned to Compatriots with call help their means create new militia, the and himself authorized on the general deal almost all, that had. His call was supported nizhegorodtsami and patriots from other cities.

This militia can be rightly call into. Core troops constituted Smolyani, dorogobuzhane and vyazmichi just about 2000 of experienced, quenched in battles warriors. Except them in militia vlilos many volunteers from all strata population then Russia from peasant until notable a nobleman's. Were representatives and nerusskikh peoples Tatars, Mordvin (people), category: Chuvash people. Kuzma Minin Putting strong and Dream-organizational preparation militias. He managed to provide militias all necessary: Monetary threat to they received significantly higher, than sluzhilye people, were well Americas, dressed. Militia had a strong artillery.

Military leadership was tasked grand duke to Dmitrii Pozharsky, which previously already hosted participation in the fight with Poles. Militia is moved on Moscow in March 1612, year, on path, replenished and new forces. -fighting for Moscow have continued with August on October and ended defeat Poles.

In 1613 year tsar Mikhail Fedorovich two chaps Kuzma Minin title rank a nobleman's. Then Minin received in ownership settlements Vorsma Urban Settlement and will be with surrounding villages. By nizhegorodskogo any now rests in Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk cathedral in Volga the Kremlin. Over him forced or induced mobilize behind nizhegorodskikh opolcheniy 1612, and 1812

6

N.Novgorod Uusimaa In period HERS ministery

The seventeenth-@-@ the eighteenth century characterized turbulent development farming in Volga Volga region. Open new land, is installing public division of labor, evolves commodity-monetary agriculture.

One of crafts was production pearl ashes some bad chemical, eaten in dealing production, mylovarenii, krasilnom fact, designing gunpowder. In large numbers his undertook in Arzamassky the busiest, and then through Arkhangelsk get wheeled abroad.

Ghazal fisheries management generally known for Balakhna Urban Settlement. Here same receives development a wooden shipbuilding.

In Lyskovo, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast lived master smiths, their building, gorshechniki, tailors.

Far beyond the the brink went thank about pavlovskikh liteyschikakh and oruzheynikakh.

Kozhevennym fisheries management successful rural-urban divide will be with nine villages.

In the early the eighteenth century in background coast` emerged big anchor plant, and about Vorotyntsa in mid-the eighteenth century cast-and Iron plants Demidov.

The most large industrial center the brink became N. Novgorod. This was center kanatnogo production, shipbuilding, metalworking. Masters of-shipyard workers participated in prepare Volga fleet for transportation artillery, and ammunition in Azov. Of mods... pissing bells, and anchor, scale grade weapons castles. Worked kozhevennye, solodovennye, pivovarennye plants, brick plant, steel, pottery ,-salt knickerbockers holland factories.

On decrees Peter I (538-contained) was founded N.Novgorod Uusimaa. Its center became Nizhny Novgorod. In composition county of lay cities Alatyr to life, Arzamas, Balakhna Urban Settlement, Vasilsursk, Gorokhovets, Vladimir Oblast, Kurmysh, Yurievets, Yadrinskoye Urban Settlement. 3 merchants waged large operations with Volga-cities, Moscow, category: Vologda, Solikamsky, had ties with Siberia, stopped working beyond countries. In immense numbers commanded on Volga-from Astrakhan fish, in lower Novgorod developed a wholesale trade kernel, salt.

With first years the seventeenth-century widely known in the trade world became Makar'yevsky District , based in XV century contrary Lyskovo, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
Here have walls monastery almost 200 years lasted annual Fair. This was contains the largest the international torzhische. Their goods here was being taken merchants from countries East, of England, Denmark, Sweden and many other countries. Travelers noted, that trade celebration have Makareva was more and richer, than known in Europe shows in Frankfurt and Leipzig. In 1816 year after fire Fair revived in lower Novgorod

In the second half of the eighteenth century on a new my cell division N.Novgorod Uusimaa shared on 11 counties: Arzamassky, Ardatovsky, Balakhninskiy District, Vasilskiy, Gorbatovskiy, Knyagininskiy, NIZHEGORODSKY, Makar'yevsky District, Lukoyanovskiy, Sergachsky, Semenivka region. This complicated administrative the division not changes until of the October revolution.

7

OF

From history local government in Nizhny Novgorod area (the seventeenth- the beginning of the 20th centuries)
The author articles B. M. Do

Self-government in Russia has deep roots and in the period before 1917 Existed in two forms local and soslovnoe. Local self-government waged on a certain territory and with starters the seventeenth-digits Disorderly predominantly not character. Soslovnoe self-government fulsome as a consequence class character Russian monarchy and initially butted with a local government. This feature of expressly distress in documents archive Fund Nizhny Novgorod area.

In period the seventeenth- nach.XVIII centuries In lower Novgorod acted college Zakopane body soslovno-an elected self-government posadskogo and free of peasant (chernososhnogo) population. Judging by traceable Workers, college Zakopane controlling communal land, enjoyed keyboard layout and collection of taxes, has watched prohibitions homage, knew measures, headings,, performed policemen and judicial functions defaulting sub-prime Civil and Criminal affair. In composition railway Lyubotin - Sumy - cottages lay: Mikhailovich Marz, izbiravshiysya on 1-2 year from posadskikh people cities (in reported 1,611 Propulsion This office Maldives Kuzma Minin), zemskiy judge his deputy, and also zemskiy reader (minor orders), responsible for proceedings. In aid them could be elected on volostyam the Directorial the county county tselovalniki, performed predominantly predecessors for functions. A Zemstvo Zakopane fully run by Tayny Prikaz izboy (body administrative governance region); county Marz and judge obey the Vojvoda (and prikaznomu dyaku.

Except self-government for posadsko-of peasant population, in this same period existed and self-government for his people (noblemen and children seigniorial) the so-called city ,vedavshiy questions organizations and passage military and administrative services. Led by this body stood gorodnichiy, out from number of the most significant noblemen Nizhny Novgorod the county. So, in the seventeenth-digits Office gorodnichego for series of years Maldives Dmitri Zhdanov (species known with XVI digits In the course reforms Peter I (1710 nach.1720 s) was undertaken attempt to give authorities local government greater autonomy and expense of this reduce administrative apparatus. With this purpose built a management vertical , led by which stood the Massachusetts General the magistrate in the capital, culmination on status to kollegiyam (central authorities governance), but on places civil and gorodovye the magistrates, and also Schoeneberg's Town Hall(in small cities). To Magistratus ordinarii / extraordinarii and ratusham relics it functions first voters, but only in respect urban population (i.e. merchant class and posadskikh artisans). Personal composition city councils and Zaicanii Noi was formed over on an elective basis of from local merchant class and, on design reformers, should was become an independent branch administrative and judicial power. On practice this, however, not broke a, and already with the second-quarters the eighteenth digits (i.e. soon after death Peter I) the magistrates and Schoeneberg's Town Hall have lost administrative functions, and with 1775 Propulsion Became in judicial organs on Affairs merchants and Akhtyrku. Archive funds these institutions reveal, that engaged in they predominantly of enforcement of debts of mortgages Workers, layout guest of homage, and also economic questions (renovating and refurbishment cities). In his practical activities members the magistrate's and ratmany entirely depended on governor and ranks of the provincial rule; terminally the magistrates were eradicated by the Decree Senate from 13 April 1866g., and Schoeneberg's Town Hall after the introduction of new judicial statutes in county of in 1869g.

Further reforming self-government was happening in a result publications weightier II zhalovannykh of ratification cities and the gentry (21.04.1785 Propulsion On the basis these documents soslovnoe self-government was terminally separated from local: Originated province government and no noble families relevant assembly, and later kupecheskie and Burgess (word) Fortunetelling, led by class presidents (peasants his class self-government not had). Simultaneously in governorates of the and county cities created urban Council. They were rasporyaditelnymi bodies self-government, have implemented administrative and tax functions, were managed start arranging their cities. Urban Council were staffed from vowel sounds did from six groups population cities, affiliation to which was due to vested interests Teda and public position (universal suffrage in Russia until 1917 Not was). Urban Council clinging urban head and the executive body shestiglasnuyu it included, in which each of six groups population had on one glasnomu. Chairman of this constantly incumbent institutions was urban head. He same was chairman of orphan court. Activities shestiglasnykh azar proceeded under the tutelage governor, staring up for distribution financial funds and operation speaks sheets about then sums.

New stage in the development local government have become reforms 1860 s (the so-called great reforms Alexander II ). Abolishing serf rights allowed introduce self-government and for peasants, so that in this period organs self-government created separately for urban and rural population (urban and Zemskoe self-government, respectively). On gorodovomu position 1870g. System election in urban Council was changed: Elections in shestiglasnye Council were lifted, their executive functions were turned over to again created elected chamber executive head authorities urban upravam. N.Novgorod urban God I'll slay consisted of departments of: Of capital-the purpose, household, construction and secession General Fortunetelling. Every separate had several tables (departments). Moreover, 23 February 1863 In lower Novgorod was established urban seat assembly with goal definitions belonging inhabitants cities to country's capital city and amending data about them in a book. In February 1871g. On the German Nizhny Novgorod urban Council for waging such books was created special Commission. 17 December 1871g. On the German urban Council Commission was closed, and all its affairs turned over to in urban recourse for that. Urban God I'll slay also created temporary Commission, conscripted to decide questions urban accomplishment, taxation, predecessors for or associated with the hardest to charitable shares. Urban Council and urban Fortunetelling eliminated in 1918g.

On can lie about governorates of the and county first institutions , timetable agreed 1 January 1864g., were created organs Estonian National self-government (i.e. self-government in countryside). Rasporyaditelnymi bodies Zemstvos were province government and no county assembly, and executive civil and no county Fortunetelling. Zemskoe assembly (and recourse for that) chaired Chairman; on this office could be elected, typically, prominent representatives local nobility. Elections deputies first institutions passed times in three years from landlords (of landlords) and from peasants (in the latter case - through voter, izbiravshikhsya on rural and Volost administration skhodakh). In sphere of competence first of assembly lay: Device and content local pathways messages, railway Lyubotin - Sumy - mails, first schools, hospitals, Poor-house, scarcity of, surveillance of local trade and industry, our general service, organization credit and insurance-affairs, improving existence the artisan F. Promyslov waging railway Lyubotin - Sumy - statistics.

Elections in county institutions Nizhny Novgorod county of first time over in 1865. After deal of preparatory work on instrumental in drafting lists voters and signature logs about rural societies. Was elected 402 vowel sounds did (in including 189 from landlords, 175 from rural societies). Should be noted, that, judging by documentary sheets of, activity voters on first election was minor. All elected G-county first controllab belonged to to prominent Nizhny dvoryanskim last name thing.

The first province government Zemskoe assembly has opened 29 November 1865.; on this meeting was elected gubernskaya college God I'll slay, appraisal their jobs 31 December 1865. In further province government Zemskoe assembly on their congresses assume somewhat different basic direction activities Zemstvos in county of and asserted budget. Budgets Zemstvos Architecture from income, enrolled from Estonian National assets, taxing the immovable na selski imoti land, forests, industrial institutions, collections documents on the right trade and crafts. Initially until 50% funds resisted on content apparatus, but on least rises budget, the share of costs on the very a Zemstvo amounted to just 5%. Practical work first institutions promotes college God I'll slay as body executive power, (along with elective members of, worked on public advocate, and employer-provided staff (professional engineers, economists, doctors and others. To sphere practical work railway Lyubotin - Sumy - Fortunetelling were:

Bushy industry;
Road connections deal;
Medical deal;
VeterinaryF;
Popular education;
Statistics;
Assessment land na selski imoti;
Insurance.

Urban and Zemskoe self-government in Nizhny Novgorod county of put forward a series of prominent public figures, among which - N. F. Innokenty Fyodorovich Annensky, A. A. Saveliev, D. W. Sirotkin (racing driver), historians-the archivists A. S. Gatsiskiy and A. Ya Sadovskiy and others. Judging by Workers, traceable enough full of the, organs self-government a long have made for economic and cultural development region. Together with those, also sources of (memories, personal correspondence) note discontent zemtsev permanent control and another cunning trick the tutelage with hand gubernskoy administration and policemen organs: Organs self-government entirely obey the gubernskomu on Zemskim and urban Affairs presence, headed by Governor, and in counties the local Marshal police ispravnikam. In informal documents and periodic press of the time constantly study administrative whipped into line (in especially on a Zemstvo), strengthened in a result conducting kontrreform starters 1890- s And the introduction of Institute first superiors (bosses over zemstvom officials, naznachavshiesya gubernskoy administration specifically for control over were). Repeatedly emerged conflicts in ties with knockdown on office urban goals and committee chairs first controllab faces, against which only administration (the so, merchant-Wyatt Earp D. W. Sirotkin (racing driver), elected urban head, long not Franco-German in office on religious motives). In end by the early the 20th digits Activities local governments was reduced to the solving economic agents issues; no administrative authority these organs not had. All of this envious a strong irritation with hand figures local government, disaffected and tsenzovoy system election.

County institutions were eradicated in the early 1918 Volostnye countyFortunetelling, created law Provisional governments from 21 on May 1917. As organs Estonian National vsesoslovnogo self-government, inherited also administrative, financial and predecessors for functions shock absorbers that were Volost administration skhodov, knit patronage networks, courts and elders. However, to work they begin not typically recognized. Judging by official Workers and Musical, the idea the Soviets deputies, elected on the basis of universal, direct, equal and secret voting and with the entire completeness administrative, judicial and financially-economic power on this territory, 133333334 support and approval a significant part of public figures, vozglavlyavshikh local governments in Nizhny Novgorod county of. Likely, so many of them or members moderate fronts the revolutionary movement (predominantly constitutional Democrats). Some figures after 1917 Continued work in local result deputies (for example, P. A. Demidov the latest Chairman gubernskoy railway Lyubotin - Sumy - Fortunetelling and Urban Commissioner from Provisional governments); have other (A. A. Saveliev, a . Feodor Vladimir) sons ???? active participation in-movement and in further borrowed prominent public and government posts.

8

rebellious DUKh nizhegorodtsev

nizhegorodtsy participated virtually in all large insurrections, revolts, revolutions.

During insurgency under the leadership above peon status Ivan'm a Bolotnikov (1606) Byeongja in the number of insurgents comprised and peasants the Directorial the brink. The most damning conuses struggle reached in Kurmyshskom, Yadrinsky, Arzamassky and Volga counties. Risen have seized power in Arzamas, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and kept her three months. In late October 1606 year they surrounded N. Novgorod, but enter in him them not managed. In for December 1606 - January 1607 devolving Specifically sent expedition from Moscow has freed N. Novgorod from siege and suppressed uprising.

During rebellion Stepan Razin Brewery (1668-back to 1671 devolving) nizhegorodskimi insurgents presided over specifically aimed to them moreover Razin Brewery Maxim Osypov. To risen joined the inhabitants Povetluzhya, Noginsk (Bogorodsk), Greater Murashkina, Vorsma Urban Settlement, Pavlova, Gagina, Kurmysha. Lyskovo, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast met teams Osipova bell armors and and's move. Policies--and defense only Makar'yevsky District , but the monks have been able on its heels only week

Widely known name of by Arzamasskoy. She was come from sela Vyezdnoye under Arzamasom. After death husband, which to the beat flogged on decree - Save Barin, she stepped in , and when razintsy came on Volga, fled from abode and presided one of Rwandan rebel brigades. After suppression of rebellion its accused in sorcery over and burned the in which is.

Still times rioted peoples Volga region during rebellion under the leadership Kondraty Bulavina and Yemelyan Pugacheva (1773-1775 devolving A long time in zavolzhskikh forests acted the team Gavrily Starchenka. Only ones to rebel peasants in pochinkakh, Arzamassky, Lukoyanovskiy and other counties. But and these unrest were repressed.

The police Volga region stems with raskolnichim movement, emerge after church reforms of the patriarch of Nikon the Patriarch in 1654 Propulsion The well church reformer was come from sela Veldemanovo, now Perevozsky district Nizhny Novgorod area. One of opponents reforms was Protopop Habakkuk from sela Grigorovo (now Bol'shemurashkinsky district Nizhny Novgorod area). Many supporters old faith fought in ranks razintsev. After destruction rebellion, not possessing opportunities for an open resistance, entrained by have been preachers-starovertsami, posadskie and peasants fled in maloobzhitye seats the Norths, in Siberia, in deaf persons forests icons made. In Volga frontier those schismatics, circus and on Uzole, organized, Kerzhentsu, in forest Trojans, militaries Balakhna Urban Settlement and Arzamas.

With staroobryadchestvom stems occurrence khokhlomskogo art Luster on tree, feature of which is obtaining golden color of without use of gold. Painting of received its name named sela khokhloma, where has been Fair - sale painted products exempted, which privozilis here from surrounding sat and villages. Khokhlomskaya the parish,, which now is on territory modern Koverninsky cleanup, is considered center arise this trade.

9

ZNAMENITYE countrymen

Among prominent nizhegorodtsev special place ranks a mechanic-self-taught Ivan Kulibin (disambiguation). He has acquired glory abnormally skilful of a clocksmith. 15 years' a teenager he hit fellow citizens those, that fixed clock-the chime the Christmas (Stroganovskoy) church with complex intricate arrangements. To creations his hands belong clock-egg, which not only rode between time, but and naigryvali musical a melody, and also showed "theater Footbal": In abroad of initiating the car door's, for which have been moving tiny shapes. During trip Catherine on Volga-Kulibin (disambiguation) was presented it as going to hear live local attraction. A mechanic demonstrated it their work: Telescope, microscope, the advantage clock-egg. Known and other his invention: Odnoarochnyy bridge, smokeless fireworks, light, in five hundred times is lifting light lamp, self vessel.

In history the brink comprised names many all the. M. P. Aleksey Petrovich, Count Bestuzhev-Ryumin, W. Bushs and And during the, N. M. Priklonskiy hailed from Nizhny Novgorod county of, here over their kidsand otrocheskie years. In lower was born one of executives Northern society S. P. Trubetskoy. With this same city connected life brothers N. A. And A. A. Kryukovykh, father which held posts Vice governor and governor Bottom Novgorod. Official special envoy under governor served I. A. Annenkov, perebravshiysya after amnesty from Siberia in N. Novgorod. Princes F. P. Shakhovskoy (disambiguation), S. Propulsion Bolkonski, N. M. Ants, N. W. Sheremetev were held in Nizhny Novgorod county of vast estates. History am movement retained names soldiers-nizhegorodtsev I. Fadeeva and N. Povetkin. Just same about thirty all the had the or different attitude to nizhegorodchine.

In 1818 year in N. Novgorod was born one of founders of scientific Local historian P. I. Melnikov-Gheorghievici. His novels of, lead and narratives opened world to an ancient ways nizhegorodskogo tourists, closed life kerzhenskikh squitos (novel "In forests"). Among his the writings can be find also articles about Kulibine and Avvakume, Alexandra Nevsky and great princedom Volga, about cities, about activities Nizhny Novgorod shows.

Come from Bottom Novgorod were: Critic, poet, revolutionary-Democrat N. A. Aleksandrovich Dobrolyubov; scholar, mathematician, creator of neevklidovoy geometry N. I. Lobachevsky,; chief creative unification Russians composers "Mighty Plato" M. A. Balakirev.

In Arzamasskoy the artistic school, created by akademkom painting A. W. Stupinym, learned an artist W. Propulsion Perov, architect M. P. Corinthian.

In 1863-1869 devolving In N. Novgorod worked Ilya Nikolayevich (. In lower were born senior children Ilyich Ulyanov Lenin - Anna and Alexander. Subsequently here often came and himself Lenin. His grandfather - Nikolai Vasilyevich, liberation of the peasant, - was born and lived (as and his father and grandfather) in farms Androsove Sergachskoy constituencies (a modern Gaginsky district).

Native of Knyagininskogo the county I. I. Orlov invent the machine for printing money. On Paris the exhibition she was marked by awards and medals.

Another widely known name of, associated with N. Novgorod, - inventor radio A. S. Popov. In 1889-1898 devolving He headed connected electric-house.

In our frontier lived, learned and worked a distinguished chemist W. W. Vasil'evich Markovnikov, shortly theory of mutual influence atoms in chemical connecting; the founder of Russian no organic schools I. M. Sechenov; inventor method obtain from oil high quality solid-W. I. Ragozin.

Here grew and anodyne their "universities" man, whose name of with 1932 year wore our city - Maxim eve. Be one-sided, events cities, people and their fate found reflected in his works of. Here he created legend about popular do Danko ("Vieja Izergil"), were written "Song about Falcon", "Song about the Stormy Petrel", narratives "Chelkash", "My satellite", "At rafts", "Two bosyaka", Tale "Goremyka Paul", novel "Foma truck tires." M. Eve hosted most active participation in revolutionary events N. Novgorod. Policemen power, twice zaklyuchavshie Gorky in prison (in October -. And in May 1898g, powerless were nip his revolutionary activities. They complained in Department police: " all, that only there is the revolutionary in lower, life-support and lives only Gorky " When his in 1901 year returned from Bottom Novgorod on suspicion in -owned for sormovskikh Social Democrats mimeografa (printing apparatus), 0.08mm2 to writer resulted in ugly first political demonstration N. Novgorod.

10

BOLDINSKA Fall

30s years nineteenth century were time, when across Russia was famous thank about A. S. Pushkin. Precisely on this period account for attending Pushkin the Directorial the brink, where contains the Yushukan manor his family - Baldino. Autumn 1830 year, when Pushkin to stay stopped in Edise from-for quarantines on cholera at all, received in history literature name boldinskoy fall. In this time he wrote two recent head of "Yevhen Onegin (ballet)", small tragedy ("The Miser knight", "Mozart and Salieri", "Pir during the bubonic plague", "Don-Giovanni"), about thirty poems and five such in prose.

Now in township the center of the the Big Baldino created Museum-Ude) Alexander Rabinovich have Pushkin.


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