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History out Novgorod

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1

HISTORY out Novgorod

The story cities Bottom Novgorod begins in 1221 year. The Bottom Novgorod was based have seats mergers great Russians rivers - Volga and of Oka prince Mayor Yuri (case Georgi) III Vsevolodovich in 1221 year as pivot Defense Russians borders from Mordvin (people), category: Mari people and Tatars.

City received name Nizhny perhaps because, that resides was in nizovskikh lands relatively Novgorod Great, perhaps, relatively already levels attained in four virsts (country miles) upward on Oka old town , mentioning about which persisted until starters 17 century.

The first tree-reboot fortress took a extremely herself in naval strategic respect place the bounds over the pre of Oka with Volga mountain, perfectly secure with one hand profound ovragom, with the other with hand Volga steep slope down-Scree slope Bank. In the first years in Kremlin were restarted 2 belokamennykh temple a clear confirmation, that city clearly claimed on a special role in the system land Vladimiro - Suzdal Russias, but Mongolic-the Tatar invasion of not gave this materialize.

Leaks about lower Novgorod 13 century extremely meager. But known, that routed he quickly resurgence. On a short the length time in it was established Veche Republic on type Novgorod Great.

The location of cities and, defined his further fate. After the end of the Tatar communism Nizhny Novgorod constantly mentioned in Russians annals, ukreplyayas as large political and economic center Northeast Rus, remaining spiritual the bastion of Russian Orthodoxy in Volga region. In this time he often served object conflicts under taking spheres of influence between nabiravshimi force Moscow and Tver. Was it is time, when Nizhny was is named its capital great principality, which production volume was 5017 more polustoletiya (1341-1392 devolving) and not solution Moscow and Tver in quest brought over Russ. Seventeen times for history cities podstupali to Lower enemies and not once laid waste his, but city band rised again again and again.
Since the late XV century on many decades the Bottom becomes reliable the bastion of Moscow in struggle for the great examine alternative treatments for river path. In this time in city of is elevated Stone Kremlin, turned outstanding ??? Russian fortification works art. Summer 1509 year in city arrived architect-@-@ time outlander Peter Fryazin, and the September in 1 day zalozhisha Novagrad the Bottom and delasha wall stony and by Pietro Antonio Solari on Dmitrovskaya Line route diagram .

Analysis architecture and engineering features of the Directorial has allowed his restavrvtoru S. L. Agafonovu do an unambiguous conclusion about construction fortress Russians metalworkers. The Kremlin received thirteen towers in general the perimeter fortress walls (Dmitrievskuyu, Porokhovuyu, Georgievskuyu, Borisoglebskuyu, Zachatevskuyu (both became half), issue, hour, punctuated, North, Taynitskuyu, Koromyslovu, Nikolskuyu, the pantry) and 14th 1490 by Pietro Antonio Solari on, combined with Dmitrievskimi gateway 1366 through 30-metre moat led stony under bridge (not persisted).

From walls this has winter 1612, year ruled militia led by Kozmoy Mininym and Dmitri Pozharsky District for struggle with Polish-Lithuanian invaders. History retained appeal any Cosmas of Kozma Minin to nizhegorodskomu lyudu: Oh, bratie and druzi, make such nizhegorodskii peoples! That nioai?ei now, vidyasche Moscow's city state in velitsem ruin of. Impose itself in lower Nouveau hailstones brave and brave warrior Moskovskago state, these noblemen hail us, now raising the they found near hail of our, in arzamastekh mestekh . Nizhegorodtsy unanimously supported call. Self-sacrifice and ratnym feat nizhegorodskogo militias Russia was liberated from foreign interventionists.
After of distemper the police Volga region gained in relatively peaceful conditions life opportunity quickly develop agriculture, industry, trade and culture. In this time Nizhegorodchina largely shapes level of trade and industrial and artistic development across countries. Here incapable and acts largest in country Makarevskaya Fair, aborning Russian Orthodox Old Believers movement, chieftains-ideologues which (Habakkuk Petrov, Stefan Vnifantev, Paul by Metropolitan) and their that opponents (patriarch Nikon, Metropolitan Braikevich and Murom Hilarion) were nizhegorodtsami. In 1672 year in lower Novgorod was established during.

With lending Ivan Terrible Kazan (in 1552 g, and then and Astrakhan the Bottom Novgorod has become center, through which commanded the entire trade Russian state with East. In 17 century the Bottom Novgorod was center mass militias ship caravan, hiring on them of hundreds of thousands of rabotnykh. Where sea salt, fish and eastern goods with any comings with Astrakhan ships here peregruzhalis on court a lesser precipitation, podnimavshiesya forth in source of Oka and Volga. Already then the Bottom Novgorod became large center shipbuilding. In a whole city of were very developed trade: In 1624 year, for example, nizhegorodtsy were held 119 remeslenno-promyslovymi specialties.

28 on May 1722 year during the Persian a hike in the Bottom Novgorod arrived Peter First, 30 on May he celebrated an here its fiftieth anniversary was officially marked.

On the eighteenth age account for rise Bottom Novgorod as administrative center. With 538 year city became gubernskim, and with they often on 1796 year - center the Directorial Viceroyalty (that included in themselves in different times Vyatka and Slobodskoy, category: Kostroma Oblast, Penzenskaya Oblast ', Russia county of and Alatyr, Chuvash Republic province. Transformation into a Bottom Novgorod in the capital significant region Russia has healthy had on development all sides life cities: Industry, trade, enlightenment, medicine, culture, Sciences and of town-planning. In this time in lower Novgorod were open partikulyarnye hospital appears and pharmacy, began to act public private theatres (theater N. Propulsion Shakhovskoi - one of worlds oldest in country (is based in 1798 g). In 1786 year in lower Novgorod was openly chetyrekhklassnoe a secular importantly popular College. In 1792 year in lower Novgorod was created gubernskaya the printing house.

On vaudeville 18 and 19 centuries Nizhny Novgorod became large scientific and cultural center countries. Here lived a mechanic-self-taught I. P. Kulibin (disambiguation), mathematician N. I. Lobachevsky,, scholar with the world name of Damascus, prominent teacher I. I. Kuzhelev, historian N. Ilyinsky, writer-explorer W. Baranschikov and many other.

In the early 19 century nizhegorodtsy adopted active participation in Patriotic War. Local militia Congresses had in Russian 11 Russians troops until full victory over Napoleon and was disassembled only on outcome 1815 year.

Many of all the were so or otherwise are linked with Nizhegorodchinoy: M. P. Aleksey Petrovich, Count Bestuzhev-Ryumin, Alexander and Nikolai Kryukovy, S. P. Trubetskoy, I. A. Annenkov, N. W. Boris Petrovich Sheremetev, W. I. During the, F. P. Shakhovskoy (disambiguation), A. BC Ants. The first, who in Akhiezer imagery expressed ideals dekabrizma, was also Nizhegorodets - musicologist and priest A. D. Ulybyshev.

In 1816 year in Makareve was incinerated by shortly before modernly designed Dalmina complex shows. After this held.Visiting nine torzhische was shifted to Strelitsu of Oka and Volga under the Bottom Novgorod, that dramatically changed ethos and character life cities.
On projects and under the leadership A. A. De Betancourt y Molina was erected ensemble shows.
Thereby trade significance cities even more increased, putting forward Nizhny Novgorod on position third cities in Russia.

She lasted more century and had the exclusive significance not only in history Russian trade and shaping nationwide market, but and snubbed to number of largest space in world.

On 30-40 years 19 century comes largest gradostroitelnye transformation cities.

Against numerous public buildings and private trade homes remain the main vytvarne valuable architectural foil historical developments cities.

2 and 3 September 1833 year, transiently in Orenburgsky the brink for work over theme the farmer war under the leadership E. Pugacheva, in lower Novgorod kvalYofYokovanim A. S. Pushkin. He twice a turn in Kremlin, from of the late in the end of the crossed Trade a Christmas streets, took a walk on territory famous Makarevskoy shows. The impression from visits of last poet endured his kangaroo in appropriate chapter Yevhen Onegin (ballet) .

In mid-19 century pockets cultural life in city of traditionally remained homes prominent its figures: W. I. S. E. Dahl's, A. D. Ulybysheva, A. S. Gatsiskogo. W. Propulsion Korolenko, F. I. Jazz and other, not as nizhegorodtsami born, also known in life cities affairs their. City was long known musical interests, and open in lower in 70s nineteenth century musical College applies to the first in Russian province. And the first in province an art exhibition was enacted in lower Novgorod still in 1886 year. And the founders domestic the artistic and nayblsh photos A. O. Karelin and M. P. Dmitriev lived and Gorokhovetsky in lower Novgorod.

Important boost in development all sides nizhegorodskoy culture has become preparation and holding in lower Novgorod Vserossiyskoy advanced-the artistic exhibition 1896 year: Was built the building urban theater on str. Big Youth in.
In Dmitrievskoy tower has, the floodgates historical and an art exposition of, of which rose modern NIZHEGORODSKY artistic museum and addresse-an architectural museum-Preserve. Urban reconstruction of Bottom Novgorod for opening exhibition, sending of an many prominent architects Russia L. Benois, A. Pomerantseva, I. Petrov-Petrovich Ropet, engineers W. Of Belgorod, W. Bushs and Kossova stirred up architectural and artistic life cities. On vaudeville centuries in city of appeared a significant the number of valuable monuments.

In 1883 Propulsion Russian merchant N. A. Jumps proposed authorities build for nischenstvuyuschikh widows a special house contrary Krestovozdvizhnecheskogo monastery. His project developed architect N. A. Fredlikh.
In 1897 Propulsion Duma decided build on Blagoveschenskoy Tiananmen (.500 Kozma Minin) complicated administrative the building.
In a common system stilizovalis facades under "Ancient Russ." In 1903- 1904 devolving Under supervision an architect N. M. Albertovich Veshnyakov has been conducted finishing interiors. If to speak of era starters the 20th digits Interiors buildings remain in halophilic respect the most valuable. Their forms of the building links architecture Kremlin with raznostilevoy opera adjacent neighborhoods cities.
A vivid example of facilities in "Pseudo-Russian style manner" was a the building State bank, built on project Vladimir Alexandrovich Pokrovskyi in 1913. In a whole architecture buildings not has unparalleled in history Russian of architecture of and is the product the rich creative imagination author project. Semicircular towers, vysup on northern the facade are associated with defense ??? type fortress or of the castle, and the main volume of buildings with huge boyarskimi . A unique painting of interior carried out P. P. And N. P. Pashkovymi.
With starters 30-'s. 20 century city became wear name of Proletarian writer A. M. Gorky. After the revolution begins phase active industrial growth cities.

In 1932 is beginning to work contains the largest industrial venture Lobachevsky truck plant.
Lobachevsky truck plant was built for 17 months and introduced in build acting 1 January 1932 year. Roads countries have invaded port cars GAZ-AA, Legkov GAZ-A, M-1., after Great Patriotic war GAZ-51, GAZ-63, GAZ-66, Victory , Volga .

But that won same year city finally receives a safe message between right and the left beaches of Oka: Emerges the first permanent bridge. Emerges also railway bridge through Volga, on which passes Iron the road on Vyatka River (Russia), on which through eve became possible enter the Ural and in Siberia. 30s years 20th century time seething growth industry in lower Novgorod Maksim Gorkiy.

Almost simultaneously with Zavod (GAZ) in Maksim Gorkiy began construction and series of other major industrial enterprises, for example, plant milling looms.

After civil war Krasnoye Sormovo Factory No. 112 plant, based still in 1849 year as Shipbuilding, significantly expanded production. Except of steam engines, wagons, sormovichi have become issue river and maritime court, powerful diesels. In 50s sormovskie designers under the leadership R. E. Alekseeva created fundamentally new types of river and nautical courts hydrofoil and Meteor .

1. Facade of yarmarochnogo buildings (A. A. Betancourt)
2. Chief pavilion yarmarochnogo buildings (kind of from within)
3. NIZHEGORODSKY academic theater drama (W. A. Schroeter)
4. "Vdoviy house" (N. A. Fredlikh)
5. The building Varna City Council (W. P. Tseydledler)

2

Photos of starters past century

1. Ensemble the Directorial secession State Bank (W. A. Pokrovskiy)
2. Urban Duma
3. Urban Duma (kind of with Blagoveschenskoy Tiananmen)
4. Romodanovsky station
5. Nizhny Novgorod Fair (claimed buildings)

3

...
1. NIZHEGORODSKY akdemicheskiy theater drama (W. A. Schroeter)
2. Gheorghievici
3. The Annunciation
4. Pavilion Vserossiyskoy industrial exhibition
5. First she Square

4

milestone STORY out Novgorod

's the middle of the XII- on a mouth of of Oka, on territory modern Bottom Novgorod, is based Slavonic a fortified the hill-fort, thus named which "Old town."

1221 year- on more favorable in naval strategic respect place, over the pre of Oka with Volga, is based the Bottom Novgorod - "the Bottom" relatively already in January 4-'s virsts (country miles) upward on Oka Old town. Erected tree-earthen strengthen, within them to sing Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk Cathedral.

Edda year- on territory the Directorial has Brokers solid white frame Spasso-Transfiguration and Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk (1227) Sobory, on way of and image churches Vladimiro-Suzdal Rus.

1238 and 1239 devolving- the brink twice laid waste Mongolic-Tatars. Memory about this the chilling time retains eiaiii, however, "Kitezhskiy chasozvon."

1341-1392's--can time self-sustaining Great Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal principality, sopernichavshego with Moscow and Tver for the Primacy of in Russias. In N. Novgorod, researching oldest stone construction churches and has, works Izograf ideals of perfection. In 1377 year inok Lavrenty creates the grand on Russias, an excellently preserved a vellum "Lavrentevskuyu the Contemporary."

In 1377 and in 1378 yearthe brink is getting ruined Mongolic-Tatars and Mordvin (people). In carnage on River Pyana River died Russians being shelved. Nizhegorodtsy should in glukhomanyakh forests icons made (on the Vatome persist shafts ancient fortress hillforts). After this N. Novgorod rise to previous high-level socio-economic and cultural development already not can. In 1392 Propulsion 3 land join Moscow.

XV digits- NIZHEGORODSKY the brink constantly is getting ruined "izgonom" Otolaryngology Unit deeper and deeper Russias Khanate of the Golden Horde and nogayami. Effectively protect district Volga region Moscow was not in able.

1435 year- inok-Nizhegorodets Venerable Macarius on a mouth of kerzhenets River bases Makaryev, Kostroma Oblast-of Yellow Lake and Unzha . (In 1439 Propulsion His destroys the team kazantsev town Ulu-Muhammad.)

1527-1513gg.- erected Stone NIZHEGORODSKY Kremlin - an important pivot single obscherusskoy system Defense, turned witnessing Great Sieges cities kazantsami 1513, 1520, existence, 1534, 1536, 24 and others. S.

1548 and verification devolving- from N. Novgorod under Kazan set out to take being shelved Ivan IV, on outcome 1552 Propulsion Nizhegorodtsy solemnly was greeted czar-winner.

produced half of XVI digits- after joining Russia Kazan and Astrakhan (684), inclusion Volga on all its for in orbit intensive economic relations N. Novgorod becomes largest trade and industrial center countries.

Augustine of-108 devolving- NIZHEGORODSKY the brink as and the entire country, survived a ghastly hunger, and then "Smoot", marked popular insurrections and osadami N. Novgorod in 1606 and 1608 devolving

1612, year- the Bottom Novgorod became place collection Kuzmoy Mininym and Dmitri Pozharsky District 2 th popular militias, osvobodivshego country from Polish-Lithuanias interventionists.

Sometimes year
- In N. Novgorod ???????????? 2364 civilian disappeared and voters, about 15 thousand A permanent population.

1627-1631's. On territory the Directorial Kremlin erected now sustained Mikhaylo-Arkhangelsk Cathedral. In city of actively develop: Shipbuilding, metalloobrabatyvayuschaya, a textile-Spinning and leather goods making industry. Emerges a significant the breakdown of the merchants-industrialists the, razvernuvshikh its strong oldest stone construction churches, civilian chambers and trade and warehouse-, part of which persists until now. Zad rare on the artistic relevance ensembles Pechersk and Annunciation monasteries.

1630s's. - In sec. Kirikove under lyskovym appears Saver "zealots piety", whose members (P. By Metropolitan, S. Vnifantev, A. Petrov, I. Neronov) will become been ideologues Russian Orthodox Old Believers movement.

1670 Propulsion- Ves NIZHEGORODSKY the brink gripped by the peasant rebel movement S. Razin Brewery.

1695 Propulsion- During the first Azov a hike N. Novgorod visits Peter I (the second time in 1722 Propulsion Regular to attract nizhegorodtsev in Peter I the Great of era in army and on Fleet, states. The, masons, remains and Seljucks' influence declined-pryadilschikov to public works - obezlyudili city. Opening the same new trade pathways on It sharply uneaten trade potential cities.

1721 Propulsion- In N. Novgorod open Slav-Russian and Greco-Latin schools.

they often-1796 devolving- the police definitively. Time seething transformation all sides life the brink. Uusimaat share on 13 counties. Former sela and Sloboda (Semenov, Sergach Urban Settlement, a revamp and others.) become 1787 cities, receive not only rule, but and crests, and regular plans its development.
In N. Novgorod : Hospital appears and pharmacy, The main thing popular College (1786), the printing house (1792), theatres (N. I. Bakhmeteva and N. Propulsion Shakhovskoi). City fundamentally restructures on a regular basis of, standard projects new public and s overall buildings. Elimination of Viceroyalty (competitors the sharp contraction financing needs cities.

1808 Propulsion- is open N.Novgorod vsesoslovnaya Gymnasium, under it over time - noble residence Aleksandrovskii institution (1828).

1812 Propulsion- Well, the move in N. Novgorod from Moscow from the French many government institutions and of the Moscow University. Collection here popular militias (12928 warriors).

1817 Propulsion- Transfer on Strelitsu of Oka and Volga under N. Novgorod Makarevskoy shows.

1818-1822 devolving- Construction under the leadership A. A. De Betancourt y Molina architectural of the ensemble Nizhny Novgorod shows.

1824 and 1839 devolving- confirmation boy plans development N. Novgorod, adjusting cities to action annual shows: Proposed congresses showing, nasypka dams, because public gardens and parks, mass soblyudenie there buildings.

1830, 1833, 1834 devolvingDAY in Baldino and N. Novgorod (1833) A. S. Pushkin.

1841 Propulsion- Opening in N. Novgorod Nest of bank.

1849 Propulsion- Foundation Sormovsky City portrait that hung.

1861- Cancel serf rights, the formation in N. Novgorod from former peasants and craftsmen a new legal profession industrialists the-financiers, above all from number of Orthodox Old Believers: Blinovykh, Bugrovykh, Rukovishnikovykh, Burmistrovykh and others.

1864 Propulsion- Opening the Directorial urban Nikolaevsky bank.

1868 PropulsionOpening the Directorial secession State Bank (in 1913 Propulsion For him of genuinely a special complex buildings on B. Youth in the street).

1887 Propulsion- Uchrezhdena Nizhny Novgorod gubernskaya scientist is project.In Commission.

1896 PropulsionIt's open. XVI-I konferentsiya industrial and an art exhibition in N. Novgorod. Pereustroen city: Abovementioned the first in Russia an electric tram, two cable car-ski lift, built urban theater, exchange, two temple, banks, the hotels, profitable homes. In Dmitrievskoy tower open Art and Historical museums.

, 1905Revolyutsionnye speech in could-factory areas cities.

1914 Propulsion- I-I The global war. Adjusting N. Novgorod to cater war.

1917- February and Oktiabrskaya Hotel revolution.

5

. Brief INSTRUCTION historical certificate

Is based prince Mayor Yuri III Vsevolodovich in 1221 year.

In 1311 Moscow Prince Yuri Danilovich captured the Bottom Novgorod, where kingship on reigning his brother Boris. In 1341 year city became its capital self-sustaining the Directorial principality, which took an extensive territory. On the east his the border proceeded on River Sur, on the southeast and south on rivers PK and Sergei. In the west the border commanded on pravoberezhyu of Oka until Muromians, forth through a lower reaches of Klyazma's tributary, including in themselves Suzdal and Shua. On the north borders principality crossed a downside tide rivers Unzha River, Vetluga (river) and kerzhenets River. The main reference point on the east was fortress Kurmysh, based in category: 1372 year. Along the border stood small of fortress ostrozhki, in which lived border guards. The remnants of such fortresses discovered on River PK in Buturlinsky and Sergachsky areas.

In 1377 Khanate of the Golden Horde attacked Nizhny Novgorod. In battle under River PK Russian military cohorts has heaviest defeat from ordynskogo Tsarevitch Arapshi. Dmitri Konstantinovich Suzdalsky, remaining without troops, fled to Suzdal, nizhegorodtsy in neighboring Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, and Nizhny Novgorod was burnt. In 1392 Vasily I has attached the police princedom to moscow. Successor Dmitri Donskoi, Vasily III, bought in Horde characters labeled on princedom the police.

The Bottom Novgorod in the first half of the seventeenth-century (from books A. Adam Olearius Description travel in stola , 1656) In 1408 city was'm devastated over during invasion Idegay. Gerb (1781) In 1817 in rural-urban divide Kunavino on the opposite Bank of Oka was moved Makarevskaya Fair, before gathering every year have walls pogorevshego in preceding year Makar'yevski monastery. Since then, it named Nizhny Novgorod fair. Thanks to fair began rapid economic development cities and adjoining villages. Rural-urban divide Kunavino became major Mercantile class Sloboda, later here emerge industrial enterprises. In 1847 year in city of emerged the plumbing. And through two years in farms Sormovsky City District near Bottom Novgorod was based major industrial venture, later come prominence as Krasnoye Sormovo Factory No. 112 plant (in Soviet time plant Red noticeably ). With 1850 year it a level river'll be ships and, mastered until Revolution new species products: Various machines, rail cars, Syria, motor ships, trams. Thanks to caaiao noticeably soon flower in big worker village.

In 1862 year was complete construction iron roads Moscow Nizhny Novgorod (station in Kunavine). In 1895 year Iron the road came in noticeably. In 1904, was built otvevlenie to city template: Moskovsko-Kazanskaya iron roads from Arzamas, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

In 1896 year city adopted the All-Russia trade and industrial exhibition. To this milestone in city of opened tram, the second in the Russian Empire. In an exhibition were demonstrate its the first in world radio receiver an engineer A. S. Popova and the first in world giperbolidnaya to worsen and steel roller beds shell-ceilings an engineer W. Propulsion Of Belgorod.

After Great of the October Socialist Revolution vast Soviet power in city of the already autumn 1917. In 1919, Kunavino and noticeably receive status cities. In turnover instead name Kunavino gradually enters Kanavino. In 1929 year cities noticeably and Kanavino uprazdnyayutsya, their territory together in by some syolami insurance is in composition Greater Bottom Novgorod, which hencefortht share on areas. In this same year is cancelled old complicated administrative the division countries on county of. N.Novgorod Uusimaa, suspended. The Bottom Novgorod becomes center the Directorial the brink (with 1932 year and until an abolition ideal gas the brink).

7 October 1932 city renamed in eve in ties with 40-Years literary and public activities writer Flughafentransfers Gorky. In 1933 Lobachevsky the brink expands - eve remains center Gorkovskaya Oblast. Center Bottom Novgorod in this same year city finally receives a safe message between right and the left beaches of Oka: Emerges the first permanent bridge. Emerges also railway bridge through Volga, on which passes Iron the road on Vyatka River (Russia), on which through eve became possible enter the Ural and in Siberia. 30s years 20th century time seething growth industry in lower Novgorod Maksim Gorkiy. In 1932 is beginning to work contains the largest industrial venture Lobachevsky truck plant.

In 1991 city returned name the Bottom Novgorod.

6

Grad NASh NIZHNY NOVGOROD

The Bottom Novgorod is based on fusion rivers Oka and Volga on Dyatlovykh the mountains in 1221 year (from records in Laurentian codex letopisi) great prince Georrgiem (Mayor Yuri) III Vsevolodovich Vladimir (1189-1238 devolving) - son Vsevolod the Big nest (the grandson founder Moscow Yuri Dolgoruky, great-grandson Vladimir Manomakha).

Say, that ????? cities has its grains soul, which can be feel, walking about urban streets. If so, have Bottom Novgorod soul trade human, stepennogo merchant, which, however OK, just reached their mind, all did himself from first ship until own benches. Him there is, that show their guests, he blagozhelatelen to all, who dobrodushen and negligent to him.

Many evils and sadness weathered our city, and Postoyanniys 785 years and is worth firmly until now. He retained the the beauty and velichavost ancient homes, and excellent species, that are opening everyone with shores of of Oka and Volga, and some razmerennost, dragging your feet life especially compared to metropolitan. And if every, who lives in lower Novgorod, will refer to with warmer and attention city will stand long still many-many centuries.

7

HISTORY out Novgorod
Material from Wikipedia free encyclopedias

Foundation Bottom Novgorod

By the early XIII century land in a mouth of rivers of Oka have inhabited mordovskie tribes, presumably, savagely under a protectorate bulgarskikh of princes. Under military campaigns Russians of princes on Volga Bulgaria convenient place in a mouth of of Oka been the mouthpiece used by as place collection for muromskikh and Suzdal troops. In 1220 year the great Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich spent as a child the favored approach on real, after what in next year In strengthen for Russ important place [1]and founded city on Geneva,,,, Oky.

Name cities Novgorod, i.e. a new city , led historians to thought about existence of some more early settlements. Hypothesis about the Old town repeatedly maintained historians, under this spoken out version of about Bulgarian [2], mordovskom ( Abramov town [3]) or Russian (Suzdal Nizhny Novgorod the old city [4]) origins this cities. Charging attempts prove identity old town with Bulgarian with cities it's all I got, Bryakhimov and Grand city [5]. Archaeological data not support nor one of hypotheses [6], by demonstrating the absence of any more early buildings on territory the Directorial has and in neighborhood Bottom.

Relatively the emergence of an adjective floor ,-in the title cities in more later with the territory sources, there are several assumptions:

for differences from Novgorod Great and other Novgorodov, because city was in nizovskikh lands [7];
city was below relatively Old town , situated higher on Oka [8];
city was down on Volga-from Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast [9].
Foundation Bottom Novgorod became start active enlargement Russian influence on mordovskie land. In 1226 year brothers great of the Svyatoslav and Ivan successfully took several mordovskikh villages, in September 1228 year nephew of great of the understanding of Konstantinovich with colonel by Eremeem III Glebovich (Prince of were on Mordvin (people), but forced to were to return from-for stormy weather, here, and in January next year the great Prince Yuri with brother Yaroslav, nephews Konstantinovichami and muromskim prince Mayor Yuri has intruded on territory Mordovia of the Purgasa (see Purgasova Russ). In the answer Purgaz in April the same year has attacked on city, but not was able his to seize and more such attempts to with hand Mordvin (people) not was.

The first to wooden-reboot fortress borrowed extremely herself naval strategic position on mainstream over the pre of Oka with Volga sorrow Sentinel and was well protected with one hand profound ovragom, with the other steep slope down-Scree slope Volga Bank. In the first years in Volga Kremlin were built two belokamennykh temple, in including Arkhangelsk Cathedral (1227), that evidence suggests about special role, on that claimed city in the system land Vladimiro-Suzdal Russias, however Mongolic-the Tatar invasion of not gave this materialize.

Feudal period

Despite the absence of recorded sources [10], directly upominavshikh fate Bottom Novgorod under attack Mongolic-Tatar troops on Russ, is unlikely, to city not was destroyed. In February 1238 year Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and his district came under attacked one of on their own agreed brigades, rassypavshikhsya on territory Vladimir great principality after convention of capital [10]. . Rather all, young the Bottom Novgorod quite not had anything relevant forces for Defense. On other version of have cities was Europesupposedly overpowered under the leadership Voivod Yeremey in, which participated in the battle under Kolomna (city) and was decimated--thanks [11].

On a short the length time in lower Novgorod was established Veche Republic on type Novgorod Great.

In of last-thirds XIII century from the composition Suzdal principality was generated Gorodetskoe princedom, in Swords which was and the Bottom Novgorod. Prince became Andrei Alexandrovich the third son Alexander Nevsky. Princedom production volume was 5017 brief, in the early XIV century who made his cities moved in subduing Vladimir the great grand duke.

In 1311 year opponent vladimirskogo great of the Mikhail Yaroslavich in struggle for Grand Duchy of Muscovy throne Moscow Prince Yuri Danilovich captured the Bottom Novgorod, where kingship on reigning his brother Boris. After death Boris Danilovich (1320) on a short period of time the Bottom Novgorod again proved in Swords great principality Vladimir. After, as when Prince Alexander Mikhailovich, urge the on Great Princes a throne of, supported uprising against Khanate of the Golden Horde in Tver, han's an Uzbekistanian urged Moscow of the Ivan I Daniilovich Kalita devastate Tver princedom. To them has joined Suzdal Nizhny Novgorod Prince Alexander Vasilyevich. After victory han's an Uzbekistanian separated velikoknyazheskie ownership, greater part of by giving Moscow grand duke. Part of land, including former Gorodetskoe princedom, secured Aleksander II Vasiliyevich the Blind [12], and after his death in 1331 year the great grand duke Moscow Ivan I Daniilovich Kalita [13], which ran them under aid deputies.

Stolitsa Suzdalsko-the Directorial principality

In 1341 year after death Ivan Kalita han's an Uzbekistanian separated son of princedom. Part of his, (the Bottom Novgorod, Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast and Unzha River devolved in ownership Suzdal of the Constantine Chernyenko Vasilyevich. Formed up princedom, labeled a Suzdalsko-the Directorial, which took an extensive territory. On the east his the border proceeded on River Sur, on the southeast and south on rivers PK and Sergei. In the west the border commanded on pravoberezhyu of Oka until Muromians, forth through a lower reaches of Klyazma's tributary, including in themselves Suzdal and Shua. On the north borders principality crossed a downside tide rivers Unzha River, Vetluga (river) and kerzhenets River. The main reference point on the east was fortress Kurmysh, based in category: 1372 year. Along the border stood small of fortress ostrozhki, in which lived border guards. The remnants of such fortresses discovered on River PK in Buturlinsky and Sergachsky areas.

In 1377 year Khanate of the Golden Horde attacked the Bottom Novgorod. In battle under River PK Russian military cohorts has heaviest defeat from ordynskogo Tsarevitch Arapshi. Dmitri Konstantinovich Suzdalsky, remaining without troops, fled to Suzdal, nizhegorodtsy in neighboring Gorodets, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, and the Bottom Novgorod was burned by.

After Kulikovskoy battlefield Great Horde han Toqtam?s, in domination with large army followed to Moscow. Under looming, the Tatar troops to Lower Novgorod, Prince Dmitri Konstantinovich, wanting to save their land from ruin, sent to him their sons Vasily and 31, which go with army and have Moscow to give up.

Landmark post of the Moscow state

In 1392 year son Dmitri Donskoi, grandson of (on mothers) Dmitri Suzdal, Moscow Prince Vasily I received labeled on the police princedom and captured the Bottom Novgorod. Final adherence Suzdalsko-the Directorial principality to become Moscow happened in late 1440s.

In 1408 year city was'm devastated over during invasion temnika Golden Horde Idegay, in carmona year filed troops of activists of khan town Ulu Muhammad.

Under Ivana III and Vasily & III city plays role disadvantage office, has a permanent cohorts and is place collection under campaigns on devices Khanate. In this same time builds Stone Kremlin in return existing wooden.

1. Kind of on the river Volga with hand the Directorial has
2. Nizhny Novgorod in the first half of the seventeenth-century (from books A. Adam Olearius Description travel in stola , 1656)
3. Stroganov Church Smolensk as icons of of God Mothers in Gordeevke (Kanavinskiy district), 1697 Propulsion
4. Spassky Staroyarmarochnyy Cathedral (1822 Propulsion)
5. The Bottom Novgorod (rightist Bank of Oka) and village Kanavino (Left Bank) in late nineteenth century

In 1505 year under walls the Directorial has (in the very moment this) forces nizhegorodskogo of the garrison under the leadership Voivod Khabara Simskogo was reflected invasion of Nogai (and Tatars under the leadership of activists of khan Muhammad-Amin. [14]The warlord Nogai (was assassinated cannon fodder nucleus, puschennym Fedey Litvichem, after what between Nogai (and Tatars occurred infamy and han was forced to lift the siege.

After a hike Vasily III on Kazan in 1523 year rests city Vasil on River Sur (now Vasilsursk), to which are switching frontier duties, and with taking over Kazan Ivan IV means role (Nizhny Novgorod becomes minor.

In Vague time despite the, that the entire country gripped by volnitsey, the Bottom Novgorod the only along with Trinity Sergievoy Lavra continues to exert support Moscow. In end, decisive role in release from Polish interventionists plays the police militia under the leadership nizhegorodtsev Kuzma Kozma Minin and of the Dmitri Pozharsky.

In the seventeenth-century church the split, primary in Orthodox Church under a patriarch Patriarch Nikon of Moscow leads, that in neighborhood (Nizhny Novgorod, and especially, on River Kerzhentse, are formed numerous settlements starovertsev. For eradication split in lower in 1672 year rests mitropolitstvo. The first Macarius Prize Nizhny and alatyrskim are appointed Archimandrite vladimirskogo Shrek Christmas monastery Filaret. Mitropolitskaya the Department lasted in lower until contained year.

Urban city

In 1695 year transiently during his a hike on Azov week in lower conducts Peter First. Reign by the Peter following for (Nizhny Novgorod climate relations to polarization. In 1721 year on episkopskuyu the Department are appointed Archimandrite kerzhebelmashskogo monastery Pitirim A., s founding ellino-End the Greek and Slav-against Russian valery schools. In 1722 year horske in Persian approach Nizhny again visits Peter I, celebrating here day his 50th anniversary. In a result administratively-territorial reforms Peter the Bottom Novgorod with contained year becomes gubernskim city.

In large country year city visits Empress Catherine the Great, and soon happens uprising Pugachova, however, virtually not otrazivsheesya on immigration issues cities. Administrative reform 1775 year led to, that on orders from 9 September they often year in lower was established definitively, prosuschestvovavshee until 1800 year.

In a result attacks on Moscow French army in 1812 year, in the Bottom Novgorod are arriving Moscow the landlords still, trek rumors, that after fire in Moscow its capital will become the Bottom. Among newcomers in city of landlords find themselves N. M. He, W. L. Pushkin, N. BC Dmitri Bantysh-Kamenski, A. F. Malinovsky, mainstream A. Yury Neledinsky-Meletsky, K. BC Konstantin Nikolayevich Batyushkov, S. BC Glinka, which organize here its a literary Saver.

In 1817 year in rural-urban divide Kunavino on the opposite Bank of Oka was moved Makarevskaya Fair, before gathering every year have walls pogorevshego in preceding year Makar'yevski monastery. Since then, it named Nizhny Novgorod fair. Thanks to the fair began rapid economic development cities and adjoining villages. Rural-urban divide Kunavino became major Mercantile class Sloboda, later here emerge industrial enterprises.

The Bottom Novgorod (rightist Bank of Oka) and village Kanavino (Left Bank) in late nineteenth vekaPosle visits cities in 1834 year Nikolai I, emperor was measures external reconstruction of cities. In 1847 year in city of emerged the plumbing, was built the first fountain. In Kremlin were destroyed private build, in return which appeared administrative buildings. Builds many new buildings, streets, runs and gardens.

In 1849 year in farms Sormovsky City District near Bottom Novgorod was based major industrial venture, later come prominence as Krasnoye Sormovo Factory No. 112 plant (in Soviet time plant Red noticeably ). With 1850 year it a level river'll be ships and, mastered until revolution new species products: Various machines, rail cars, Syria, motor ships, trams. Thanks to caaiao noticeably soon flower in big worker village.

In 1862 year was complete construction iron roads Moscow Nizhny Novgorod (station in Kunavine). In 1895 year Iron the road came in noticeably. In 1904, was built offshoot to city template: Moskovsko-Kazanskaya iron roads from Arzamas, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

In 1896 year city adopted the All-Russia trade and industrial exhibition. To this milestone in city of opened tram (the second in the Russian Empire after of Kyiv and the second on territory modern Russia after Kaliningrad). In an exhibition were demonstrate its the first in world radio receiver an engineer A. S. Popova and the first in world hyperbolic to worsen and steel roller beds shell-ceilings an engineer W. Propulsion Of Belgorod.

revolutionary the Bottom

After connoisseur of revolution environment in city of starters to heat up. In September 1917s move was prepared elections in urban it included. In June became known, that in electoral lists not was been included population factory villages Molitovki, a plant Felzer and New Etna. 14 June workers took to demonstration with requirement electoral rights. Duma forced was go on concessions, of incorporating these villages in Kanavinskiy constituency.

On last September's election won victory Vladimir August Ganchel, representative Party Socialist-Revolutionary Party.

eve

After of the October revolution vast Soviet power in city of the already autumn 1917. In 1919, Kunavino and noticeably receive status cities. In turnover instead name Kunavino gradually enters Kanavino.

In 1929 year cities noticeably and Kanavino uprazdnyayutsya, their territory together in by some syolami insurance is in composition Greater Bottom Novgorod, which hencefortht share on areas.

In this same year is cancelled old complicated administrative the division countries on county of. N.Novgorod Uusimaa, suspended. The Bottom Novgorod becomes center the Directorial the brink (with 1932 year and until an abolition ideal gas the brink).

7 October 1932 year city renamed in eve in ties with 40-Years literary and public activities writer Flughafentransfers Gorky.

In 1933 Lobachevsky the brink razukrupnyaetsya; eve remains center Gorkovskaya Oblast.

Center Bottom Novgorod (str. Much Pokrovskaya Line) In this same year city finally receives a safe message between right and the left beaches of Oka: Emerges the first permanent bridge. Emerges also railway bridge the Volga...... on which passes Iron the road on Vyatka River (Russia), thanks to what became possible enter through eve on Ural and in Siberia.

30s years 20th century time seething growth industry in lower Novgorod Maksim Gorkiy. In 1932 is beginning to work contains the largest industrial venture Gorkovsky Avtomobilny the plant, which was important object defense industry in downturns years Great Patriotic war,.

In 1947 in city of is a trolleybusnoe message.

2 December 1970 year decree of the Presidium of Supreme Council the USSR city eve was the brain UKRMYASOMOLPROM Lenin. This has found reflection in the modern Coat of Arms of cities he shield with traditional a deer obramlyon insignia ribbon of the Order of the Lenin.

In 1985 in city of is a fuel.

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1. Nizhny Novgorod in the first half of the seventeenth-century (from books A. Adam Olearius Description travel in stola , on premeditation)

2. The Bottom Novgorod (rightist Bank of Oka) and village Kanavino (Left Bank) in late nineteenth century

3. Center Bottom Novgorod (str. Much Pokrovskaya Line)

4. Kind of on the river Volga with hand the Directorial has

5. Spassky Staroyarmarochnyy Cathedral (1822 g)

9

DTLOVY Mt. To-

Dyatlovy mountains so are called seven hills ,-reaching on right coasts of of Oka and Volga, on which resides Nizhny Novgorod.

Origins name on legend, stems with wizard behind the curtain the woodpecker photos, which had been settled in gorge mountains near the mouth of of Oka even until founding there cities.

Emerged the Bottom Novgorod on place large Darkest forests. High of the hills on right Bank rivers of Oka, prorezannye profound ovragami, were called Dyatlovy mountains. And name, say, here is where matter.

In times of listen on that spot had been settled mordvin Sparrow, each and assistant Gray-baron, hardware and associated by Muromets. Here he married on 18 Islamic, and was have oxpecker seventy sons. All they lived together, engaged in pastoralists, grazed herd on the mountains, and on the evenings back yard with my friends their ovragami on the watering hole is to Oka-River.

Here same, in gorges it mountains, lived a sorcerer the woodpecker, former also once in, simpatico, with Nightingale-poslednyaya. Here is times came Sparrow to fucking and asked his about the future fate their children. And respond the woodpecker:

- If children your will live peacefully and according to with each other, then long them ownership these would jobs, and if quarrel, then will violent conquest Russians, which be built on a mouth of of Oka grad kamenn and the verdict AWN2 / workspace6-AWN2 / workspace6, and not are going to defeat his forces an enemy's.

Long one absolute knowledge that pervades they. Under the end of the conversation the woodpecker asked sparrow here about an honest him burial.

The promised.

Time resisted.

Died a sorcerer the woodpecker, and buried his Sparrow on sorrow under a mouth of of Oka-rivers. And prozvalos the place Dyatlovy mountains.

Died for him and Sparrow.

Before death he bequeathed to children their mutual consensus and consensus, but descendants their, peressorivshis, have become conflict between themselves, and then Andrei Bogolyubsky expelling the their with the mouth of of Oka, and nephew of his Yuri Vsevolodovich, building here Nove-Grad the Bottom, carried out prophecy woodpeckers.

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Nizhny Novgorod is worth on high thickly wooded hills Volga and of Oka, about which XHTML so much songs. Holmy these since the earliest times were called Dyatlovymi verge: Likely, from, that with hand rivers his Bank collected from red-a white clay with black streaked, similar action winners white woodpeckers.

But there is and legend, on which founder Bottom Novgorod became mordvin-pagan. Was have him eighteen wives and seventy sons here is and had to him build for them Whitney for brief, quality relentlessly with an axe with morning until the evening. Was father poorest family over Volga, and thump his an axe could be heard youthful far on River. Here is and is nicknamed his the woodpecker photos those who sailed past in ladyakh and boats.

Have the legend there is continuation of. Have a falling out as something two adults Dyatlovykh son, began a?aea. In the contestant the Nighttime ieue on Volga-Russian Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich, observed in the mountains melteshenie. Asked he have browser Voivod, that there happening. The, of course, diplomatically told, that Mordva welcomes Russian of the and requests his gifts to accept. Sent then Yuri Vsevolodovich in Dzyatlava settlement envoy.

Sons woodpeckers once was engage that for Prince, but times requests gifts the so please. Have filled they parcel - a pitcher a bid, triggered in basket pies yes the other food, and sent off on Bank with gifts their boys-teenagers. Guys on path so naugoschalis from jug, that had to fill his spring water. Prince, was, know, but colonel was and here not XXX Video World: Dorozhe gift to commemorate not can be: For land and water their Mordva presvetlomu grand duke bestows , - said he. Swam To Her Prince further: Where would cast a on Bank handful land there city stand, where a pinch would cast a here nor there be.

So, on legend, on Dyatlovykh the mountains and grew soon the Bottom Novgorod. In annals same emerged about him only one row: 30th of 6729 (1221 year) Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich laid grad on Geneva,,,, of Oka and did you call him name of Novgorod the Bottom.