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Golden khokhloma

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1

In my opinion one of structure popular creativity Russia is Khokhlomskaya LIST.

Can be boldly (with pride) say, that "Golden khokhloma" the trademark Nizhny Novgorod area.
Uniquely carved and overly wooden products fascinate with first glance. When holding their in the hands of, is felt warmly and relatedness with these astonishing things.

Khokhlomskaya painting of this striking original phenomenon Russian popular dekorativno-application art. This traditional artistic answer emerged in the seventeenth-century in Nizhny Novgorod county of and received its name from a major trade sela khokhloma, far on trades svozilis all wooden products.

Initially) utensils izgotavlivalas under monasteries and was meant for czarist court.

Golden khokhloma one of ancient by original Russians popular crafts, for centuries which forms be one-sided and their consciences as much as generations and that constitutes an integral part of Russian culture. Feature of khokhlomskogo fishery capacity was lost is the fabrication gilded a wooden tableware without use of precious metal and svoeobraznaya at-travnaya painting of. Symbol of main Luster has become Spicy heat-bird, XXII and flamboyant colors. Its capital golden khokhlomy rightly is considered city Semenov, County in 80 kilometers from Bottom Novgorod.

Main answer includes more than three centuries. He a civilian in Department Zavolzhye (disambiguation) and went from foots. This was time extensive apartment nizhegorodskikh land different common people, among which were Russian Orthodox Old Believers - opponents church reforms Patriarch Nikon the Patriarch. They knew secret Fire-gilding icons under aid silver metal and flaxseed butter drying oil.

Wooden as icons of covered layer by layer silver content, rastertogo in powder, after what olifili, then ticked in stove again. After hardening that icon purchased a new golden color. Subsequently, with the emergence of more cheap tin, this way to moved and on tableware. So, ranging with the seventeenth-century, on entire Russia glorified by sculpted wooden utensils zavolzhskikh craftsmen. Dress utensils izgotavlivalas at special orders small parties from different breeds fruit, different forms of and the artistic finishing, and was meant for donation a prominent guests and foreign ambassadors.

Subsequently, when on markets emerged, prisoner with main cheap a metal and industry utensils, unusual painting Semenovskikh products exempted guarantees the their popularity and sales.

So in nineteenth digits Khokhlomskuyu tableware can be was meet in any every corner of the Russia, and also in Persia, India, Central Asia, the US and Australia. After World exhibition -. In Paris sharply widened exports khokhlomskikh products exempted.

In 1916g. In Propulsion Semenov was opened the Kennedy the artistic processing fruit, the first graduates which led by G. P. 20-th century organized a small artel (1931g, pererosshuyu subsequently in major business unification of the Order of the Mark of Badge of Merit" Khokhlomskaya we can.

historical certificate:

For centuries history main answer has undergone a long booms and drops, that this mirror has reflected on fate his craftsmen. The high cost of forests, competition a metal and earthenware tableware, dependence from fences - all of this not contributed to growth welfare themselves lozhkarey and artists. Position has changed, when in 1916 year under support the Directorial lands in Semyonovsky Urban Okrug was opened the Kennedy the artistic processing tree of. Its headed a talented an artist G. P. Matveev. On base this schools was organized Cooperative Alternative artel the Shrubber - an artist , which subsequently deteriorates into in major business unification Khokhlomskaya painting of.

Thankful responses descendants remember about merit-Matveeva, on territory enterprises him imposed a monument and retained mortgaged 20-th century tradition mentorship. Khokhlomskaya painting of -relief bedecks Semyonovsky Art lyceum # 30, where prepare future craftsmen on paintings and Russian wood.

In 1931 artel received name Export , because 70% products were selling abroad. In 1961 artel received status factories, and in 1971 - supply-artistic unification.

Currently contains the largest in Russia venture popular artistic crafts Khokhlomskaya painting of continues to centuries-old tradition issuing products exempted with main painting. In assortment ???????????? more 1,000 named products exempted utiltarnogo and dekorativno-Amentia appointments. This mnogopredmetnye sets for caldrons, dessert, in including: Sets-porcelain services, carved buckets, Bratina Cup (buckets for guilt), candlesticks, vases, supplies, bochata, importing, Gapchinskaya, musical caskets.

With the mid-1960's. And on now venture Khokhlomskaya we can is the largest producer artistic products exempted from tree of with main painting. Thanks to a talented collective persist and preumnozhayutsya tradition ancient craftsmen. And city Semenov rightly is considered its capital Golden Khokhlomy.

Extremely

Per se for centuries squaring the technology Fire-gilding wooden products exempted, who came from foots, virtually without changes survivor until now time. She includes in themselves five basic operations. Above than become a gold , a wooden product case similar on a clay and accessories.

First from in dried a fake timber moulds ready for further processing tokarnuyu tableware: Chalice and bochata, supplies and vases, failing phytosterols and buckets. Their are dried and cover special soil red-brown color of, from what all they become similar on clay. Then times how boiled linen trouser suit oils (drying oil) and are cleaning aluminum powder. They become is opa... is opaque-shiny, remind silver, and in such a the form of trickled in in of workshop Luster.

Breathtaking affrescoes products two-three times cover varnish and zakalivayut in furnace in temperatures in 120-130 degrees. We have core & film attaches Jazz (the surface golden luster of. Thus tree turns into gold.

Products of our enterprises possess not only aesthetic value. Thanks to special close a varnish and high temperature processing they highly completely practical and offer safe in using. From main tableware can be to drink and there is, with she not loses its external species from cold and hot dishes, and also of salty and lactic acid products.

Moreover, the entire products enterprises CJSC "Khokhlomskaya painting of" is certified and protected internationally a Risk sign.

2

khokhloma- so called large trade rural-urban divide, far privozilis for sales products from surrounding villages and villages. Here an attractive product purchased the merchants, and then used on fairs not only across Russia, but and for its outside. And in the consciousness of buyers colorful utensils, phytosterols have become associated with name trade sela. The police Zavolzhye (disambiguation) - center art main Luster - the brink sated history and an original culture.

Masters of the artistic sawmills icons made cut into pieces according that are spacious cottages, decorated their effity carving, scale distaffs have, are made of gingerbread chessboard, sharpened lit wooden tableware. All these skills received further development, and pieds noirs have enriched their their creative experience. This was the foundation shape this art. In those longstanding times significant aesthetic values created and were stored in the monasteries and skits were produced using of the Old. Precisely here Gorokhovetsky icon painters, those associated skills Fire-gilding their creations without use of precious metal, worked census takers books, goldsmiths and master needlewomen-zolotoshvei. Their prowess undoubtedly decimation influence on the formation such a species popular creativity, as) painting of. Is impressive its entire country vegetable patterns and for colourful decoration-the solemn colouring, based on combination of red metal bromine, brilliant under layer by layer varnish black tone and vividly burning gold.

To withstand competition, plugged with the emergence of on Russian market affordable earthenware and a metal tableware, khokhlomskim masters had to seek more effective techniques in registration of the their products exempted. Their now have become zolotit not map fragments of, and fully, to paint with sophisticated travnym with an ornament. New artistic decisions have led to success and products fishery capacity was lost in late nineteenth century met on all the domestic and overseas exhibitions, the artisan squares throughout Satakunta and storage. And after global exhibition 1889 year in Paris, sharply widened exports khokhlomskikh products exempted in various countries. Especially many their undertaken trade firms Germany, of England, France and India.

Khokhlomskaya painting of as element of Russian an original culture

Khokhloma Ermine rural-urban divide, zateryavsheesya in wilderness So! Zavolzhskikh forests. Together with his history moves away in the distant past the ascent there known on the whole world art main Luster. Perhaps, picturesque art Khokhlomy fulsome in ties with technique the Book icons. Painting tableware engaged in peasants, living in villages, along around Khokhlomy. In Luster khokhloma almost there is no conversations scenes; all its art artists directed on image of the plant forms of, or so-called travnogo floral ornament, associated with traditions engineering Russias. Painting of khokhloma beautiful in his technology: Flexible wavy stems are with leaves, berries and colors obegayut the walls vessel, decorate his domestic the surface, shift subject unique any photo ethos. Painting of khokhloma looks very important: On some things stems are to stretch through upward, on other frizz and be going around the circle.

Khokhlomskaya painting of proceeded, prove scientists-researchers. Reached until us single samples utensils starters past century show, that khokhlomskoe art in his development passed several stages.

Painting of khokhloma inextricably communicates with concrete writings popular fishery capacity was lost. An excellent work of literature the most early period is bratina. Name primary tells us about ancient revolutionary's habit, when our remote ancestors, belonged to to one destiny associated to be of the-knit, positioning themselves for prejudice something important trial, intended on overall a banquet bratchinu, and in bratine okruglom actually in the form of pot brought to table festive drink.

Khokhlomskaya painting of rich. Likely, still and in the early past century peasants Khokhlomy remembered about daily customs even and grandfathers: About this says wondrous naryad vessel. On rounded the surface tulova confident and free strokes in the black backdrop of Iranian Red the flower, and like wetting and shoulders have Bratina Cup covered by gold. Brisk several belilnymi stripes few become a handsome the flower ignited a shining flames, and from this still brighter zablestelo gold on the rim and then vessel. Khokhlomskaya painting of contains historical wait: Stop PRESS. Created this the an artist nobly here, presumably, the the magic Red the flower, which, on popular great, yielded happiness, but see his can be was only one times in year in night on Ivanov day.

Khokhlomskaya painting of this present embodiment of human feelings and of emotions. In such poetic figures reverberate love Russian human to nature.

3

main answerwas based in forestry Zavolzhye (disambiguation), on territory current Koverninsky cleanup Gorkovskaya (area.

Inhabitants settlements architecture Novopokrovskoe, Vinogradovo, Mokushino, Big and Small cartilage or Cartilages, Semino, Kuligino, Skorodumovo, Vorotnevo, Shabashevo, Medvezhkovo, Rassadino, Skorobogatovo and other, along bordering rivers Uzola River, from centuries engaged in penetration a wooden your exquisite tableware.

Thanks to ikonopistsam from Old Order environment, vladevshim's ancient there "vyzolachivaniya" products exempted, here spread cosmogonies way to turning ordinary wooden shells has grown over time in "golden" without use of precious metal. Traditional technique, improved in. Here, time, is based on simpler principle. After passing the final phase finishing products - "hardening" - under influence high temperature of swamps and wetlands his & film it acquires honey color. The combination of its with prosvechivayuschimsya but layer by layer gives golden effect.

Edges products attract not only beauty floral ornament. Their value for durable lakovoe coverage, thanks to which they enjoy in daily life. In khokhlomskom platter can be set okroshku to table, in cup parca hotheaded tea - and nothing not stands alright with wooden product: Not a rubbery plastic in varnish, not fade away A paint. Not accidentally in all times existence Volga fishery capacity was lost masters of, possess "trade as written" assemble this "magic tableware", stavshego on will fate in other seats, based there new centers its.
Range of khokhlomskikh products exempted yet coalesced long. In his basis of lie carved lozhkarnye products and tokarnaya utensils: A cup of, bowls, postavtsy, bochata, solonitsy, phytosterols. In recent decades were created new forms household things: Kits posudnykh products exempted for some compote, caldrons, salad, berries, pancakes and of honey, sets for cuisine -postavki with shelves, and also large ornamental products for jewelry homes - ornamental it, Gapchinskaya. In furnish khokhlomskikh products exempted popular masters of use several options. All they differ heating regimes, efficiently drying and hardening, exaction carry practices. On example one of offenders finishing are visible operations, through which passes each thing.

Main Luster are common two types of letters and closely associated with them class floral ornament - "riding" and "FG to BG." "Horse" painting of comes from the hard strokes on flexible the surface, forming the free filigree Figure. A classic example verkhovogo letters is "weed", or "travnaya painting of" with red and black bushes, stebelkami, noses cosmogonies graphic Figure on gold backdrop of.

Another variety verkhovogo letters - "under leaf." In it widely apply more large vegetable forms - rounded note pages, berries, raspolagaemye symmetrically have stem is. For "background" Luster characteristically the use of background - black or non-white, then as himself Figure remains gold. Until filling background on raspisyvaemuyu the surface proactively inflict the contours of motives. Forms big motives as well as model hatching. Often on okrashennomu background write a minor travnyy pattern - "came home late." More complex type-of letters is "Aleksei Kudrin", called so for abundance round of curls, which create fabulous forms plants, flowers and birds. After Luster product comes in delay the furbishing, during which his are cleaning drying oils, twice cover varnish and place on several hours in stove again for hardening, where temperatures reaches 150 degrees.

Currently) painting of received large the spread of. Widely known two its large center - Seminskaya factory of artistic products exempted "main an artist" and Semenovskoe of the Order "Mark of Badge of Merit" "business unification" Khokhlomskaya painting of ", domiciled in Gorkovskaya (area.

Seminskie masters of, prodolzhateli traditions u khokhlomy, thinly feel the beauty meadow African herbs, forest berries. They raspisyvayut predominantly traditional, drifting away forms tableware. Semenovskie masters of, citizens, more often adopt in Luster rich forms garden flowers, preferring technique Luster "under von." They like precise have an eyebrow Figure and widely use diverse set of the hatching for simulations motives. But along with the basic centers Khokhloma fulsome many new manufacturing, industries producing high field products "under gold."

Products differ large diversity. Ordinary forms a wooden tableware - shells has grown over time, cups of and bochat, postavkov and kandeek - dates back to the traditional Russian mansaf. Beautiful on proportsiyam, strong and sustainable, they create in House atmosphere coziness and prazdnichnosti. Rural masters of not tend to seek innovative, latest decisions, preferring set of familiar hyphenated, optimal size and proportion which have become classic "nation. Such a otobrannuyu a century tradition mechanic slide trade and already someone with high art merit tableware creating mistress raspisyvayut examined vegetable patterns.

Painters eloquently possess all kinds main Luster, they know and like golden patterns kudriny, ancient travnoe letter with raskidistymi black and 11th stalks as, 's calligraphy before accurate strokes. However in their work masters of give preference Luster with chernolakovym foil and more often write familiar and so close agriculture are expand images garden and meadow flowers, fruits and of leaves. Artist interpolate in one epic the beauty of spring flowering of nature and its autumn generosity, in poetic imagery incarnating dream beings about rich harvest, thanks to what raspisyvaemye they objects become thereby Thais symbols of wishes prosperity. So a favorite masteritsami black von helps them achieve greater zvuchnosti color range of Luster, and Golets pattern clearer stands out on it.

In their work they widely use a special reception modelirovki - inflict on izobrazhaemye plants color contour benign spin, which lights are wrapped in a motives, shift them also. Such cryptic way flickering ornament snowing not only things my gift appointments, unique art, which masters of prepare on large last popular artistic trade, - vases, Bratina Cup, buckets, but and mass products Kolkhozniy fishery capacity was lost.

The surface dipper-utitsy with add-kovshikami, Irbis was built leading a master Kolkhozniy fishery capacity was lost Antoninoy Vasilevnoy Razborovoy, outside and from within picked up pattern branches of the forest twinsy-dikushi with small rumyanymi red apples and golden asterisks an unadulterated. Such pyatilepestkovye flowers, different on size, written alongside these strawberries and bone, fruits of raspberry, hops and gooseberries, do just throw ribes. But they are so organically includes in ornament, that not arises doubt in doable such drug combinations.

4

Skyfall sketch deserved artist trades abroad Taisia Belyantsevoy exhorts day 40 celebrations flights from London in Moscow fyuzelyazhi eight the Hurtigruten airlines British Eyerveyz were are decorated with khokhlomskim pattern!

In 1993 in continuation of traditions in technology foots on khokhlomskomu gold peg on factory was created ikonopisnaya the workshop and launched the fabrication icons. Canons foots artists terrorists were trained in Trinity-Sergievoy Laurels and received blessing on Writ icons from Metropolitan the Directorial and Arzamassky Nicholas. In 1999 ikonopisnaya the workshop enterprises LLP Khokhlomskaya painting of washigh honor enter in composition workshops under Father Paul Sebbelov His Holiness of the Holy Patriarch of the Moscow and of all the Russias Alexey II. Khokhlomskimi icons are decorated with many temples Nizhny Novgorod area.

Relatively recently in 2004 on venture Khokhlomskaya painting of began to manufacture conceptually new products - Gapchinskaya with painting. This copyrights work, sovmeschayuschie in itself two kinds of art: Painting and dekorativno-applied art - khokhlomskuyu painting of.

In 1992 was open-the manufacturing semyonovskoy kartina.

On venture issue not only ornamental products and tableware, but and furniture with main painting. Kidsdesks, chairs and benches, tables interiorni, servirovochnye and occasional. Child furniture fits demands state standard and is indispensable under after groups childhood gardens and childhood civilian rooms. Also do and furniture its own carpentry: Various species soft and tough chairs for homes, office or cafes, and also groups dining, tables and bed. A carpenter furniture able on a wide circle buyers.

Currently CJSC Khokhloma steadily works and evolves, increasing volumes of production and sales. Expense of own business investment in production Correia new species products exempted, be acquired equipment, expand of workshop, organize themselves new jobs. More 1,000 firms from Vladivostok until Kaliningrad are partners enterprises. Products is exported in countries its and-own neighborhood: Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine, Turkmenistan, the US, Canada, France, Germany, England, Japan, Spain and other.

For tourists on factory are organized exciting tour, introducing you into guests with history fishery capacity was lost, technological process on all stages birth khokhlomskikh products exempted. Here can be contact with the best metalworkers and accept participation in an exciting master-classroom on Luster kartina. And also order lunch on individual menu. To your services - a spacious dining room or banquet hall, interior which governs in khokhlomskom-style, and it buoyed in Tsarist posude.

On factory there is capacity cabinet, where with 1972 housewife samples unique products exempted, among them a huge) spoon - 2 Dam 67 centimeters and polutorametrovaya Cup. And also Music, in which at affordable prices can be buy all, that produced on factory.

Even one thing achieving khokhlomichey - annual All-Russia festival Golden khokhloma , to come on which in city or Semenov will recognise you can all wishing to in June.

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What is diversity!

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And this still not all.

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Wonder products on all cases life.

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Otter rivets

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What is diversity!

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What is diversity!